Roots of modern architecture / text by Christian Norberg-Schulz ; edited and photographed by Yukio Futagawa,Tokyo : A.D.A. Edita, 1983
214 p. : ill. ; 30 x 31 cm 英日對照
Chapter 1 The New World and The New Architecture 8
Chapter 2 The Free Plan 28
Chapter 3 The Open Form 44
Chapter 4 The Natural House 70
Chapter 5 The Democratic Institution 90
Chapter 6 The Healthy City 116
Chapter 7 The New Regionalism 134
Chapter 8 The New Monumentality 152
Chapter 8 The New Place 176
Select Bibliography 201
恭喜梁永安譯 Peter Gay "現代主義" (Modernism) 得了今年「開卷十大好書獎．
2010年1月17日 ... (受邀者)贈:Peter Gay "現代主義" (Modernism) 梁永安譯 2010年1月17日(週日) 1200-
内容简介 · · · · · ·
作者简介 · · · · · ·彼得．蓋伊(Peter Gay)
一九二三年出生於柏林，一九三八 年移民美國。哥倫比亞大學博士，曾任教於哥倫比亞大學，目前為耶魯大學史特林（Sterling）史學教授、古根漢與洛克菲勒基金會學者、劍橋邱吉爾學院 海外學者。歷獲各種研究獎如海尼根（Heineken）史學獎等，寫過超過二十五部作品，包括得過「美國圖書獎」的《啟蒙運動》、暢銷的《威瑪文化》，以 及被譯為多種語言的《弗洛依德傳》。（以上三書中譯本皆立緒出版）
Modernist architecture: Roots (1920-1929)
What inspired and kick-started the Modern Movement in architecture?
- Duration: 5 mins
- Published on: Monday 26th November 2001
- Introductory Level
- Posted under: Heritage
The machine ageThe roots of the Modern Movement can be traced back to the profound social and technological changes which characterised the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the twentieth.
Cities in the western world were expanding. This urbanisation called for a new approach to building- new technologies would have to be embraced, offering cheaper, more efficient means of satisfying a larger population and a growing number of industrial clients. In the United States, the cities of Chicago and New York had embraced tall metal-framed buildings in the second half of the 19th century.
Louis Sullivan, one of the most prominent members of the 'Chicago School' of architects, coined the phrase "form follows function", a mantra for Modernists ever since. Sullivan and his contemporaries built astounding new skyscrapers, which would soon be a feature of cities across the world.
But although these skyscrapers were modern, they were not modernist (Le Corbusier criticised the Americans' lack of urban planning). The response of European architects to the Americans' technological advances (including bridges and other building forms as well as skyscrapers) would lead to the development of Modernism.
And in the early twentieth century, technological advances were rapidly changing western society. Road and rail networks were altering the face of modern countries, people were more mobile, goods and materials could be transported across the world easily and quickly. Reinforced concrete (a strong and efficient material pioneered by Auguste Perret); this and the availability of plate glass, meant that architects would soon be able to celebrate this new technology in the buildings they were designing.
Machines, in the form of cars, telephones, and ocean liners captured the public imagination, and emphasised the positive force that technology could play in people's lives. In 1921, Le Corbusier described a house as "a machine for living in". Le Corbusier and others believed that houses should have the purity of form of a well-designed machine. The formal qualities of mass-produced cars and other machines were therefore of great interest to them.
The shock of the newElsewhere in Europe, the short-lived De Stijl movement (1917-1931), a collection of Dutch artists and architects, wanted to liberate the arts from the shackles of tradition. Other movements such as Art Nouveau (1893-1914) and Expressionism (1912-1923) also experimented with bold, new forms and ideas, and in Russia the Constructivists (1920-1932) emphasised honesty of materials and functional simplicity in their (mostly public) buildings.
These movements appealed to many architects in Europe who felt that their profession had become trapped in the past. They believed that the new machine age demanded a new architecture.
In 1919, Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus School in Weimar, Germany. This academy of architecture and design, although only in existence for fourteen years, established a tremendous reputation amongst the avant garde for its creative approach to architecture and design, a reputation that lives on to this day. Gropius' aims, as refined in 1923, in his text Idee und Aufbau, included the idea that workers in all the crafts should design for a better world using the idea of machine production as a stimulus.
New thinking on minimalist design and creating space was pioneered by Gropius' fellow German Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, who famously declared "less is more", and put his dictum into practice with his seminal Barcelona Pavilion in 1929.
Imagining a new worldOne year prior to Barcelona, with the nascent Movement determined to win over a doubting public and architectural establishment, the Congres Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM) had met for the first time. An immensely influential think-tank, CIAM sought to formalise the various roots of Modernism into a coherent set of rules. Its opening declaration called for architecture to be rationalised and standardised, and to be seen in context of economic and political realities.
In the years that followed, CIAM produced many radical and ambitious documents which sought to place architecture at the centre of economic and political discussions about building a new and better world.
And with the backing of CIAM, the Modernists began their mission to make architecture not simply about the building of buildings, but rather about the construction of a new way of living.