2018年4月20日 星期五

2018年6月15日 題目:友情五講



漢清講堂
時間 2018年6月15日 10:00~12:30
地址:台北市新生南路三段88號2樓
電話:(02) 23650127
題目:友情

Because humans are a social species and evolved in the context of collaboration, abilities have been outsourced. As a result, people are individually rather limited thinkers
六月十五日,Herbert A. Simon 紀念日,主題:友情




The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds Hardcover– December 6, 2016


Forty years ago, Israeli psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky wrote a series of breathtakingly original studies undoing our assumptions about the decision-making process. Their papers showed the ways in which the human mind erred, systematically, when forced to make judgments in uncertain situations. Their work created the field of behavioral economics, revolutionized Big Data studies, advanced evidence-based medicine, led to a new approach to government regulation, and made much of Michael Lewis’s own work possible. Kahneman and Tversky are more responsible than anybody for the powerful trend to mistrust human intuition and defer to algorithms.
The Undoing Project is about a compelling collaboration between two men who have the dimensions of great literary figures. They became heroes in the university and on the battlefield―both had important careers in the Israeli military―and their research was deeply linked to their extraordinary life experiences. Amos Tversky was a brilliant, self-confident warrior and extrovert, the center of rapt attention in any room; Kahneman, a fugitive from the Nazis in his childhood, was an introvert whose questing self-doubt was the seedbed of his ideas. They became one of the greatest partnerships in the history of science, working together so closely that they couldn’t remember whose brain originated which ideas, or who should claim credit. They flipped a coin to decide the lead authorship on the first paper they wrote, and simply alternated thereafter.
This story about the workings of the human mind is explored through the personalities of two fascinating individuals so fundamentally different from each other that they seem unlikely friends or colleagues. In the process they may well have changed, for good, mankind’s view of its own mind.



沒有自動替代文字。

2018年4月4日 星期三

2018年4月22日:張旺山教授 講尼采的「悲劇的誕生」; 沈金標先生介紹加拿大李亮欽「生命典範」:;"外國語言學習"座談會


漢清講堂
時間 2018年4月22日 10:00~12:30
地址:台北市新生南路三段88號2樓
電話:(02) 23650127
題目:1. 張旺山教授談: 尼采的「悲劇的誕生」
            2. 沈金標先生介紹加拿大李亮欽:「生命典範」
            3. "外國語言學習"座談會


4月22早上10點,請您來:
1. 張旺山教授講/指導:尼采的「悲劇的誕生」/   ("希臘文化、神話、悲劇、尼采的「悲劇的誕生」"等入門資料,由 (鍾漢清)預先錄好,當補充材料)
2. 沈金標先生介紹加拿大李亮欽的「生命典範」
3. 之後,還有一場由與會講師和來賓的"外國語言學習"座談會,鼓勵學生克服外文學習恐懼障礙,努力搞好某一外語。
(東海第4屆1962中文系畢、聯合國退休的陳文華等人談晚年學法文,他大一政治學課,系主任張佛泉 (1907?~94)引他們精讀某本Political Science的書,引導他們入門英文,使得他在日本留學時考上聯合國翻譯官.....)
****
張旺山教授有部分自己翻譯的《悲劇的誕生》,希望我印出來當講義。

*****

Hanching Chung

昨晚與沈金標兄聊天,他每月在中國某新興城市 (沒人開發票)工作10天。他說中國最大的亡國隱憂之一是貪腐。
他上月與某歇業餐廳老闆聊天---一年虧30萬RMB。老闆說官員家人朋友來吃,都是記帳的。

李亮欽老師一家,大力影響了沈金標兄和嚴匡漢兄 (1971~72東海7棟我室友),真正令人感動的導航之旅。

沈哥



照片裡的同工要在地面聚首不是一件易事了
2013年導航會四十周年…
李老師、師母從溫哥華返台
多年未見的王醫師從澳洲趕回
匡漢從加州專程回來…
茂駿是清大講座教授
進泰則是東海靈糧堂的主任牧師
當年在李家聚會宛如一個家庭
如今…各奔西東…枝繁葉茂否???



2018
原本在台北想講之江大學的故事
沒想到主辦單位要求講李老師
十年前李老師返台
大夥兒為他歡慶七十大壽
看看多少老朋友
某人還當了校長耶!



我是看了{世紀末的維也納}的一段,決定好好探討這本重要的著作及其影響力。
「悲劇的誕生」我先採用北京商務印書館的版本。

賴老師,我今年有些主題與音樂相關,想請您和忠信兄等參加。4月22日有尼采的悲劇的誕生,它的標題The Birth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Music 。另外我探討維也納20世紀之交的"整體藝術"的追求,可能自己就錄影,如果有朋友參加,則可以討論。

***
Wiki的條目,不深入,尚可參考:
酒神與太陽神或稱戴奧尼索斯與阿波羅是一種哲學的、文學的概念,一種二分法。西方的文學及哲學家如:普魯塔克[1]尼采托馬斯·曼等,都多以此理論為基礎,作出文學或哲學評論。
雖然此理論是藉德國哲學家尼采的《悲劇的誕生》而廣為人知,但其實它是普魯士詩人弗里德里希·荷爾德林引用溫克爾曼對酒神戴奧尼索斯的論述提出的。[2].
此理論描述的兩個極端均是以希臘神話神祇命名的。一個是太陽神阿波羅,另一個是豐收之神和酒神戴奧尼索斯。他們均是天神宙斯的兒子。阿波羅代表詩歌、預言、俊美整齊和光明;戴奧尼索斯則代表生命力、戲劇、狂喜和醉酒。文學評論家以他們對比的性格描述不同的藝術風格,但希臘神話中他們並非相反象徵或仇敵。

尼采的理論[編輯]

悲劇的誕生[編輯]

在《悲劇的誕生》中,尼采運用「酒神」與「太陽神」做為一組二元對立的精神範式典型,他以醉境和夢境分別形容酒神狀態和太陽神狀態。
太陽神精神象徵的是美的外觀,「我們用太陽神的名字統稱美的外觀的無數幻覺」[3],是一種形式美、節制和對稱、是分析和分辨。太陽神精神象徵的是形式主義和古典主義、視覺藝術。[4]
而酒神精神來源自古希臘的酒神祭。在酒神祭中,人們打破禁忌、放縱慾望,解除一切束縛,復歸自然。這是一種痛苦與狂喜交織的非理性狀態。「酒神狀態的迷狂,它對人生日常界線和規則的破壞,期間,包含著一種恍惚的成分,個人過去所經歷的一切都淹沒在其中了。」[5]是一種狂熱、瘋狂的快感、是人與人之間的界限消弭了,成為了稱為觀眾的一體。酒神精神象徵的是浪漫主義、音樂和表演藝術。[6]
尼采相信埃斯庫羅斯索福克勒斯希臘悲劇同時蘊含太陽神(演員的對話部份)和酒神(歌詠團的歌唱部份)的精神。然而,歐里庇得斯卻捨棄了酒神精神,將戲劇引導至心理劇的層面,亦因此造成希臘悲劇的衰微。

偶像的黃昏[編輯]

晚期的尼采美學思想將酒神及太陽神精神都視為醉境:「兩者都被理解為醉的類型」[7]。且賦予酒神不僅是美學上的意義,且是面對人生苦難的重要力量:「甚至對生命最奇怪與最艱難的問題都要表示肯定,甚至在其最高類型時生命意志都會對其自身的不可窮盡性感到喜悅— 那就是我所謂的酒神精神,我推測那就是能通達悲劇詩人心理學的橋樑。」[8]

參考文獻[編輯]


Nietzsche & Rosenzweig (Birth of Tragedy) Chorus (Modern Jewish Philosophy Ur-Text)

https://jewishphilosophyplace.com/2014/02/21/nietzsche-rosenzweig-birth-of-tragedy-chorus-modern-jewish-philosophy-ur-text/





Wikipedia 德文版之英譯

The book is actually a compilation of several drafts and writings that Nietzsche had put on paper from 1869, among others the titles: The Greek Music Drama; Socrates and the Greek tragedy; The Dionysian worldview; The tragedy and the free spirits, The birth of the tragic thought; - all essays, some of which were published much later in the Nietzsche estate, in the summer of 1871, however, were essential parts of his book. Thus Nietzsche did not attach much importance to the preparation of an outline, but above all he had in mind the principle of the "Gesamtkunstwerk".


Nietzsche as an artilleryman, 1868
Nietzsche gave a preface to the second edition of 1886. In it, he criticizes his previous style of writing, but not the intention, because he had made a decisive change in his life with this book. In his "Self-Criticism" he wrote in 1886:

What an impossible book had grown out of such an unlawful task! Built out of nothing but premature over-green self-experiences, all of which lay hard on the threshold of the incurable, placed upon the soil of art-for the problem of science can not be recognized on the ground of science-a book perhaps for artists with the side-line of analytic and cultural retrospective skills (that is, for an exceptional kind of artists to look for and do not even want to search ...), full of psychological innovations and artist stealthes, with an artist metaphysics in the background, a youthful work full of youthful courage and youthful melancholy Independent, defiantly self-sufficient even where it seems to bow to an authority and its own worship, in short a first work in every bad sense of the word, despite its senile problem, fraught with every mistake of youth, especially with its "Much too long, "their" storm and urge ": on the other hand, in regard to the Erf olg it had (in the special case of the great artist, to whom it turned as if to a dialogue, with Richard Wagner) a proven book, I mean one which has at least done enough "to the best of his time." ]


content
The young Nietzsche wanted to correct with his presentation the hitherto usual view of the "classics" (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller), the Greeks were a cheerful and happy people. He reveals to the reader a rather tragic attitude towards life of the Hellenes who, in a world of constant annihilation struggles, saw themselves as achieving selfish goals and needed their bright world of gods in order to bear the gloom and hardships of everyday life. Their expression was found in and with their arts, with two of their Olympic gods holding a key position: Apollon and Dionysus.

The basis of the work, a fundamental aesthetic philosophy, which imitates ontology and epistemology as the first philosophy through Nietzsche's assertion of "aesthetic science", is philosophically demanding. [1] Nietzsche writes:

for only as an aesthetic phenomenon is existence and the world eternally justified. [5]
The peculiar ability to transform experiences of an existential nature into phenomena of art creates a perspective on the manifestation of religion and science as the shaping of art from the optics of life. For further investigations, the Attic tragedy is of central importance, which saw Nietzsche as a high point and exemplary Daseinsbewältigenden character of Greek culture and art.

Attempt a self-criticism
Influenced entirely by his role models, Wagner and Schopenhauer, the young classical philologist describes human life as a dream from which, after a "Dionysian awakening", a new human being reveals himself:

Singing and dancing, man expresses himself as a member of a higher community: he has forgotten how to walk and speak, and is on the way to flying up into the air, dancing. From his gestures the enchantment speaks. As the animals now speak, and the earth gives milk and honey, so also something supernatural sounds out of it: as God he feels himself, he now walks as ecstatically and exalted as he saw the gods walk in the dream. Man is no longer an artist, he has become a work of art: the artistic power of all nature, to the highest satisfaction of the Ur-A, reveals itself here under the showers of intoxication. The noblest clay, the most precious marble, is kneaded and carved here, man, and to the chisel strokes of the Dionysian cosmic artist sounds the Eleusinian mystery cry: "You fall down, millions? Do you suspect the Creator, world? "[6]

Richard Wagner around 1864
The theories and ideas of Nietzsche were recorded differently, so followers of Wagner and Schopenhauer were enthusiastic, whereas other experts strongly criticized the work. In Anlehnun



The theories and ideas of Nietzsche were recorded differently, so followers of Wagner and Schopenhauer were enthusiastic, whereas other experts strongly criticized the work. Following the criticism of the experts Nietzsche wrote:

She should have sung, this "new soul" - and not talking! [7]
Chapters 1-6
Expression found the Greeks in their arts, with two of their Olympic gods held a key position: Apollo and Dionysus.

Nietzsche sees two important poles in Greek life, the Dionysian and the Apollonian, not as the art faculty of a fixed and abstract opposition, but rather as a productive interaction of an asset that already begins as a duplicity. The Dionysian, intoxicating and natural (Expressionist) is the primitive will to self-indulgence, as expressed in the music. The Apollonian is the formative (classical) force of harmony and the fine arts. Dimensionally limited is the Apollonian representative of structures established and stabilized experience and design processes. [1] In the interaction of the two antipodes Nietzsche recognizes the human life situation:

To our two artificial deities, Apollo and Dionysus, our knowledge is linked to the fact that in the Greek world there is an immense contrast between the art of the artist, the Apollonian, and the non-pictorial art of music, as the origin of Dionysius Both these different drives go side by side, usually in an open conflict with each other and irritating each other to ever new, stronger births, in order to perpetuate in them the struggle of that antithesis which the common word "art" only seems to bridge. until finally, through a metaphysical act of miracle of the Hellenic "will," they appear paired with one another, and in this mating they finally produce the equally Dionysian and Apollonian work of art of Attic tragedy. [8]
On the other hand, Dionysian is not the transition that leads to the amorphous and boundless, but an ecstatic moment emanating from this form, which delimits the corresponding modes of experience and offers possibilities for new, unknown expressions. [1]

Instead of heroes (in masks), "the people" now came on the stage, instead of ritual "celebration" there have been comedies for entertainment. And, just as Richard Wagner did in his Zurich manuscripts (The Artwork of the Future, Opera and Drama), Nietzsche scourged the degeneracy of the once noble Greek art and culture to the futile revival attempts in the Renaissance, which only lead to an "operatic imitation" of the Similar to Schopenhauer, he laments the impoverishment of Western art through a purely scientific view of the world:

But now science, spurred on by its powerful delusion, is inexorably rushing to its limits, where its optimism, hidden in the essence of logic, fails. For the periphery of the circle of science has infinitely many points, and while it is not yet clear how the circle could ever be fully measured, yet the noble and gifted man, even before the middle of his existence and inevitably, encounters such boundary points the periphery, where he stares into the inconceivable. If he sees to his terror here, how logic curls around itself at these borders and finally bites its tail - then the new form of the knowledge breaks through, the tragic knowledge, which, in order to be endured only, as protection and cure the art needs. [9]

Chapter 7-10
Embedded in the speculative balance, Nietzsche interprets the Greek tragedy as a culture of violent Titanic origin resulting from an Apollonian civilization. Despite the introduction of the vital Olympian Pantheon as an Apollonian culture and the horrors of its existence, they managed once again to expose their culture to the threat of the chaos of Dionysian experience. The unknown Dionysus cult, thanks to its integrative revolution, shaped the distinctive character of Greek culture. A classical text-oriented theory of drama, which had been common since Aristotle, contradicted an aesthetic of interpretation reconstructing the tragic as a specified idea. Nietzsche rehabilitates the classical Greek tragedy with a precise perspective on multimedia activities with the Dionysian choir in the center of gravity, which ritually reproduces Dionysos's suffering through symbolism and ecstasy. Beyond the limits of synesthesia, the audience is enraptured by the tragic task of the individual. Nietzsche calls this sensualization of his own self-understanding "Dionysian wisdom". The choir with music, dance, facial expressions and gestures represents the onset of nature. Now the medial counterpart obtains the recovery of the Apollonian culture. The plot and the language of a dramatic production envisage the detachment of the Dionysian and Apollinian state. For Nietzsche, the phenomenon of tragedy prevails here. [1]

Chapter 11-17
Socrates' logical optimism, coupled with myth-making competence and the downfall of tragedy, as well as the works of Euripides, erroneously inspired by Socrates, forms the tenor of these chapters. Euripides' productions are rational, imitation-oriented and psychologized functions (aesthetic Socratism). The theory of the critically historical mind is used instead of the affective participation and symbols of mysticism, which due to the distancing achievements are taken to have distinctive characteristics. In Europe, according to Nietzsche, there would be a change in the forms of culture. The original symbolism of aesthetic consciousness differs from the geistorientierten reification, which causes a decline of ritual practices for self-awareness of the new focus, the confrontation with texts, (Alexandrian canonization).

Chapter 18-25
Chapters 18 to 25 deal with the repression of cultural-historical and contemporary interpretation. The opera, as a counterpart of the Alexandrian culture, forms an aesthetics of word and sound art, which Nietzsche sees as a visionary resurrection in Wagner's tragedies and in mythical wisdom. Art is the indispensable consolation before the tragedy that Kant and Schopenhauer worked out with their achievements in the field of reason and will. Naive tone paintings of German music, as used by Bach and Beethoven in their operas, are overcome in Wagner's operas. Mythical stage myths, the visualization of symphonic violence and the protection against it bring back the Dionysian music as the "ureine" of the will (Tristan and Isolde). Music and tragic myth are equally expressions of the Dionysian empowerment of a people and inseparable from each other. In the musical dramas of Wagner this was realized and the true culture reborn, as arose from the Greek new German culture.

Nobody believes that the German spirit has forever lost its mythical homeland, if it still so clearly understands the bird's voices that speak of that homeland. One day he will find himself awake in the fresh air of a dazzling sleep: then he will kill dragons, destroy the treacherous dwarfs and raise Brünnhilde - and Wotan's spear itself will not be able to hinder his way! [10]
The decline of this original culture was initiated by Socrates and Euripides. Through intellectual "cultivation" of the tragedies they had set the course for an Enlightenment, rational philosophy and pioneered the "scientific man" and thus become gravediggers of the ancient arts. [1]

It is the Dionysian music, the "shattering force of sound, the unified stream of Melos and the incomparable world of harmony", which stimulates man to the highest heightening of his abilities, so that "unimpressed ones urge for expression". Nietzsche explains that ritual choir dances and cult songs were the source of the dithyrambs and tragedies, concluding that music originated in Greek tragedies (or vice versa). Following Schopenhauer, he describes music as the metaphysical expression of the "will to live" and the actual breeding ground on which not only the tragedies grew, but also the entire Greek culture. [1]


effective history
With the birth of the tragedy Nietzsche broke with traditional concepts of classical philology. His philological specialist colleagues initially kept the book dead. Even Friedrich Ritschl, who had patronized Nietzsche as a philologist, sent a letter only after Nietzsche's pressing demand, in which he informed him of his fundamental objections. In the private circle he expressed himself sharper, noted in his diary Nietzsche's "megalomania" and wrote Wilhelm Vischer-Bilfinger:

"It is miraculous how in [Nietzsche] two souls live next to each other. On the one hand the strictest method of trained scientific research [...] on the other hand this fantastic-exuberant, übergeistreich overflowing into the incomprehensible, Wagner-Schopenhauerische artmysterienreligionsschwärmerei! [...] The end of the song is, of course, that mutual understanding is lacking; he is too dizzy for me, I think he is too crabby. "

Similarly, most philologists have probably felt. The first and only one who censured the writing publicly, was Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, who was at the beginning of his career, with his polemical book on future philology published in May 1872 !:

"Mr. Nietzsche does not appear as a scientific researcher: wisdom attained on the path of intuition is presented partly in the kanzleistil, partly in a raisonnement, which is only too akin to the journalist. [...] but one thing I demand: keep your word, if he grasps the thyrsus, he will go from India to Greece, but descend from the cathedral on which he is to teach science; he collects tiger and panther on his knees, but not germany's philological youth, who in the ascetic work is supposed to learn to seek truth alone everywhere "

The result was a public controversy, in which Erwin Rohde defended Nietzsche with an open letter after philology and Richard Wagner with an open letter. With a subsequent replica Wilamowitz - Moellendorffs in February 1873 ended the dispute without agreement. In his memoirs he wrote much later that although his writing was presumptuous and boyish, he was right in saying that Nietzsche did not belong to a philological chair, but had become "a prophet for an irreligious religion and an unphilosophical philosophy." be.

The few, probably caused by the sensational dispute reviews of birth were consistently critical. Nietzsche lost his reputation as a philologist, which was reflected in the collapse of the number of students with him. For philology he was "scientifically dead". On the other hand, the book was well received by some artists. Richard and Cosima Wagner were enthusiastic, as was Hans von Bülow and, with some reservations, Franz Liszt.

Nietzsche's writing was increasingly successful in the circles of artists and intellectuals. Soon, however, the concepts of "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" became independent and were used as "classical" and "expressionist". This lost the reciprocal relationship between the two impulses, which was so important to Nietzsche.