2013年3月22日 星期五

Toyo Ito 建築家伊東豊雄 Architectural Iconoclast Wins t...

Toyo Ito 建築家伊東豊雄 Architectural Iconoclast Wins t...

紐約時報的建築家 Toyo Ito 伊東豊雄 獲獎記多次提到高雄的世運館. 表示他遠非前幾年的獎主之英年得志

仙台媒體中心(sendai mediatheque,簡稱smt),是在仙台市青葉區開設的複合文化設施。於2001年1月開館,由伊東豊雄設計。

Architectural Iconoclast Wins the Pritzker Prize

  • Tomio Ohashi

  • Fu Tsu Construction Co., Ltd.

  • Daici Ano

  • Daici Ano

  • Nacasa & Partners Inc.
Sendai Mediatheque library, completed in Sendai, Japan, in 2001.
Published: March 17, 2013

Toyo Ito, a Japanese architect who broke from Modernism and designed a library that survived his country’s catastrophic 2011 earthquake, was awarded his profession’s top honor, the Pritzker Architecture Prize, on Sunday.
“Toyo Ito is a creator of timeless buildings, who at the same time boldly charts new paths,” the Pritzker jury said in its citation. “His architecture projects an air of optimism, lightness and joy and is infused with both a sense of uniqueness and universality.”
In a telephone interview Mr. Ito, 71, said he was gratified by the honor, especially because it represents an acceptance of his position as an iconoclast who has challenged the past 100 years of Modernism.
“I’ve been thinking that Modernism has already reached to the limit or a dead end,” Mr. Ito said through an interpreter. “I didn’t expect this surprising news, and I’m very happy about it.”
Nicolai Ouroussoff, then the architecture critic of The New York Times, remarked in 2009 that Mr. Ito had repeatedly been passed over for the Pritzker “in favor of designers with much thinner résumés.”
Mr. Ito will receive the award at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Boston on May 29.
Looking back over his career Mr. Ito said he is particularly proud of the Sendai Mediatheque, his library completed in Sendai, Japan, in 2001. The building’s design is dominated by structural tubes that support the floor plates and provide circulation, pathways that the Pritzker jury said “permitted new interior spatial qualities.”
But Mr. Ito is also proud of the building’s significance as a project that was meant to withstand an earthquake. (It won a Golden Lion Award at the 2012 Venice Architecture Biennale.) A video of the inside of the building taken by someone under a table during the earthquake in 2011 went viral.
“The building shook and swayed violently; everything cascaded from shelves and desks onto the floor,” the architecture critic Ada Louise Huxtable wrote in The Wall Street Journal. “Ceiling panels appeared to swing drunkenly overhead. But the Mediatheque did not collapse. It stood firm against the massive seismic forces that were tearing other buildings apart; the basic structure did not fail.”
Mr. Ito has been active in the recovery effort. He recruited three young architects to help him develop the concept of Home-for-All, communal space for survivors. In his book “Toyo Ito: Forces of Nature,” edited by Jesse Turnbull and published last year by Princeton Architectural Press, Mr. Ito writes, “An architect is someone who can make such places for meager meals show a little more humanity, make them a little more beautiful, a little more comfortable.”
The citation said Mr. Ito consistently couples his personal creative agenda with a sense of public responsibility. “It is far more complex and riskier to innovate while working on buildings where the public is concerned,” the jury said, “but this has not deterred him.”
Though perhaps not as well known as architects like Rem Koolhaas or Frank Gehry, Mr. Ito rose to prominence with the completion of his stadium in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, built for the World Games in 2009.
And he has received his share of awards, including, in 2010, the Praemium Imperiale, which recognizes lifetime achievement in areas of the arts not covered by the Nobel Prizes.
But Mr. Ito said he doesn’t worry about status or architecture competitions. “We cannot predict what we will win or we won’t win,” he said.
He said he just needs to be able to do the work he wants to do. These days that includes flatware, called Mu, introduced in Paris by the Italian company Alessi. Mu means hexagon in Japanese and refers to the six-sided shape of the handles, which resemble chopsticks. The pattern complements Ku, the porcelain service Mr. Ito created for Alessi in 2006.
He has also been drawn to practical retail projects like a building for Tod’s, the Italian shoe and handbag company, and the facade of the Mikimoto Ginza 2 flagship store — both in Tokyo. And he continues to design ambitious public projects like the Taichung opera house, whose porous exterior has been likened to a gigantic sponge, and the Tama Art University Library, an irregular grid of concrete arches.
Born to Japanese parents in Keijo — now Seoul — in 1941, Mr. Ito moved to Tokyo in junior high school and then attended the University of Tokyo, where architecture became his main interest. He went on to graduate in 1965 and began working at the firm of Kiyonori Kikutake & Associates. In 1971 he left to start his own studio, calling it Urban Robot (Urbot), which in 1979 became Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects.
Many of his early works were residences — including one in a Tokyo suburb called “Aluminum House,” which consisted of a wooden frame completely covered in aluminum, and a home for his sister called “White U,” which generated considerable interest in his work.
Throughout his career, Mr. Ito said, he has tried to establish a connection between inside and the outside conditions, an effort evident in his lightweight structures that use materials like mesh, perforated aluminum and permeable fabrics.
That fluidity pervades projects like his World Games stadium, critics said, which do not conform to conventional definitions of modern architecture.
“It reflects his longstanding belief that architecture, to be human, must somehow embrace seemingly contradictory values,” Mr. Ouroussoff wrote in his review of the building. “Instead of a self-contained utopia, he offers us multiple worlds, drifting in and out of focus like a dream.”


日本建築師伊東豐雄(Toyo Ito)打破現代主義局限,設計了一座圖書館在2011年日本災難性大地震中矗立不倒,周日,他被授予其領域的最高榮譽——普利茲克建築獎。
2009年,時任《紐約時報》建築評論家的尼古拉·奧羅索夫(Nicola Ouroussoff)曾說,普利茲克建築獎屢次忽視伊東豐雄,卻把“榮譽給了一些成績相對較少的設計者。”
伊東豐雄將於5月29日在位於波士頓的約翰·F·肯尼迪總統圖書館和博物館(John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum)接受頒獎。
回顧自己的職業生涯,伊東豐雄表示,尤其讓他感到自豪的是仙台媒體中心(Sendai Mediatheque),他設計的這座圖書館於2001年在仙台竣工。該建築物的設計以支撐樓面板、提供循環通道的結構管材為主,普利茲克獎評審團稱,這種設計“使新的內部空間品質成為可能。”
“建築物晃動和搖擺得非常劇烈,架子和桌子上所有的東西都陸續掉到樓板上,”建築評論家艾達·劉易斯·哈克斯特貝爾(Ada Louise Huxtable)在《華爾街日報》(The Wall Street Journal)上寫道。“天花板在頭頂上象醉漢似地東搖西晃。但媒體中心沒有倒塌,它抵抗了巨大的地震力而巍然矗立,地震摧毀了許多其他建築物,但媒體 中心大樓的基本結構沒有損壞。”
伊東豐雄一直積极參与災後重建工作。他招聘了三名年輕建築師,幫助他發展“天下人之家”的構想,為災民提供共用的空間。在傑西·特恩布爾 (Jesse Turnbull)主編的《伊東豐雄:大自然的力量》一書中,伊東豐雄寫道,“建築師是這樣的人,他能讓那種吃粗茶淡飯的地方變得更有人情味,讓它們更美 麗、更舒適一些。”普林斯頓建築出版社(Princeton Architectural Press)去年出版了這本書。
雖然伊東豐雄可能不像雷姆·庫哈斯(Rem Koolhaas)和弗蘭克·蓋瑞(Frank Gehry)等建築師那麼有名,但隨着他為台灣高雄設計的2009年世界運動會(World Games)體育場的竣工,伊東豐雄開始受到關注。
他被授予各種獎項,包括2010年日本皇室世界文化獎(Praemium Imperiale),該獎對諾貝爾獎沒有涉及的藝術領域裡的終身成就予以肯定。
他表示只要能做自己想做的事情就可以了。這些日子,他做的事情包括稱為“Mu”的餐具系列,意大利公司Alessi 在巴黎把這套餐具推向市場。Mu在日語里是"六"的意思,指餐具手柄的六邊形截面,與筷子的類似。伊東豐雄曾在2006年為Alessi設計了“Ku”系 列的瓷器,這個餐具設計與瓷器的相輔相成。
他還喜歡設計一些實用零售商店,比如意大利皮鞋皮包製品公司Tod’s東京店,以及Mikimoto Ginza 2東京旗艦店。他仍在繼續設計一些雄心勃勃的公共建築物,比如台灣台中大都會歌劇院,其多孔的外表被比作一塊巨大的海綿,還有日本多摩美術大學圖書館 (Tama Art University Library),該建築由水泥拱頂組成的不規則網格構成。
伊東豐雄於1941年出生在韓國京城——現在的首爾,父母為日本人。伊東豐雄讀初中時搬到東京,後來進入東京大學學習,其間建築成為他的主要興趣。 伊東豐雄於1965年畢業,並開始在菊竹清訓建築師事務所(Kiyonori Kikutake & Associates)工作。1971年,他創立了自己的工作室,稱之為都市機械人(Urban Robot,簡稱Urbot),1979年改名為伊東豐雄建築設計事務所(Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects)。
伊東豐雄早期的作品中有很多是住宅,其中包括東京郊區的“鋁屋”(Aluminum House),該建築由完全包裹在鋁材中的木頭框架組成,還包括為姐姐設計的名為“中野本町之家”(White U)的住宅,該建築使人們對其作品產生了極大興趣 。