2016年3月26日 星期六

紀念 Andy Grove (2)

接下來的兩本書,包括《十倍速時代 》(Only the Paranoid Survive 1996)和匈牙利成長回憶錄《葛魯夫自傳--橫度生命湖 》(Swimming Across: A Memoir 2001),台灣也都有出版:

(10 倍速時代 Only the Paranoid Survive提到 W. Edwards Deming 一處,「恐懼可以成為自滿的剋星。因自滿而受到傷害的,通常正是那些最成功的人。」 p.151) ( 尋智書摘第1 )

PHILANTHROPY: Speaking of systems thinking, you were famous at Intel for your management philosophy that “only the paranoid survive.” By that, you meant that a business must always be hyper-attentive to possible threats and opportunities. Is such paranoia a helpful mindset for a philanthropist?

慈善事業說到系統思考,你是在英特爾公司以“只有偏執狂才能生存” 管理理念出名。你的意思是,一個企業必須始終對可能的威脅和機遇超細心和敏感。這樣的"偏執"想法和心態,對慈善家是否有幫助?
MR. GROVE: Yes, it is, in the following sense. It’s very hard to shape inanimate material into semiconductors or pharmaceuticals. Nature constantly wants to derail your experiment. The only thing that’s harder than shaping inanimate material is trying to shape animate material—and most difficult of all is trying to shape the activities of people. Then it is not just nature that is trying to derail you; people themselves do a pretty good job of it. If you feel strongly toward achieving something through philanthropy, I think what I call paranoia—a deep suspicion about all of the many things that can go wrong—is necessary.

PHILANTHROPY: Are you as paranoid about vocational education as you were about business?
先生。格羅夫:這兩件事的細節當然不同,但從偏執之方式上說它們非常相似。管理上的偏執涉及試圖去預測誰會有意或無意間讓你放慢腳步,或者誰都會讓你敗事。這種態度通常學校是不會教的,所以我會去寫那本書。。現在,談到職業教育,你記不記得總統在1983年的教育報告[處於危險中的國家]中 的話,它開頭這樣說:“如果一個不友善的外國勢力今天企圖讓美國的教育成績平庸的話,我們很可能會視其為戰爭行為。” 這是偏執心態嗎?
MR. GROVE: The details are of course different, but in this way, they are very similar. Paranoia in management involves trying to anticipate who intentionally or unintentionally will slow you down, or who will derail you. Usually this attitude is not taught in school, which is why I wrote my book. Now, as for vocational education, do you recall the words of the presidential report on education [A Nation at Risk] from 1983? It started out by saying, “If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war.” Is this paranoia?
Well, the same thing applies to vocational education—only doubly so. Most people don’t even realize the need for more highly trained workers. The assumption remains that technical education is for less intelligent people. The first item cut from educational budgets is vocational education. People are required to be suitably trained for their work requirements, and yet the classes that are required for this are cut to the bone. In some instances, students are halfway through the course when funding is cut and then they are sent home. We create a damned obstacle course for people who want to work!

paranoia Show phonetics
1 [C or U] an extreme and unreasonable feeling that other people do not like you or are going to harm or criticize you:
There's a lot of paranoia about crime at the moment.

2 [U] SPECIALIZED Someone who has paranoia has unreasonable false beliefs as a part of another mental illness, for example schizophrenia.

paranoid Show phonetics
1 feeling extremely anxious and worried because you believe that other people do not like you or are trying to harm you:
He started feeling paranoid and was convinced his boss was going to fire him.

2 SPECIALIZED suffering from a mental illness in which you believe that other people are trying to harm you:
He was diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic.
paranoid delusions

paranoiac Show phonetics
noun [C]
someone who is paranoid

第一, 要鼓勵學校找到定位,找出特色,打破學校只追求學術表現的刻板印象。
第二, 要強化校園和職場的連結,讓更多有經驗、專業的「技術教師」加入教學。
第三, 要讓職業教育的授課和證書,能夠彈性化。要打破只能在學校受教育的模式,讓非營利組織、職場、職訓和學校能夠結為網絡。

90年代中是Intel 公司的極盛時期,技術、管理人員約3萬5千人。該公司一位大廠長David  Marsing 的個人-工作之間的衝突和覺悟、成長的故事:David B. Marsing的修練的軌跡
參考: Peter Senge 等4人合著【修練的軌跡】天下文化,2006,pp.192-94--這大概根據下文寫的故事,強調 David Marsing管理最大工廠的回報率很高。
Killer Results Without Killing Yourself | Fast Company ...At 36, Intel's David Marsing suffered a near-fatal heart attack. Now he's running the world's largest semi-conductor factory — and trying to save Intel from itself.

David B. Marsing 在Intel 23年之後,現在是..... Eagle Harbor Holdings, LLC (EHH)的 Chief Operating Officer。

實際上,Andy 退出Intel 之後,該公司的行事風格和文化,都有一定的不同了,

Grove 基金會約成立於1986年,到了21世紀才真正動起來。
Swimming Across 一書的版稅捐給他銘感一生的國際救援組織

深夜讀這篇提倡:熱情地去幹政府做不到或比慈善單位更無效率的事業,譬如說,青年或成年人的技能訓練.....了不起Interview with Andrew Grove
The Angry Philanthropist
Interview from Spring 2011 issue of Philanthropy magazine

Andrew Grove is angry with philanthropy, and he thinks other donors should…