2013年5月18日 星期六

Cases Study for Materials Management (I): 郭台銘:供應鏈拯救世界,臺灣壹集團 ,台灣連鎖便利商,HTC: the One: microphone...

Cases Study  for Materials Management (I):

 Audit at Foxconn Reveals a Workweek Still Too Long...有中文

Audit at Foxconn Reveals a Workweek Still Too Long

 Foxconn Technology, the company that manufactures Apple’s popular iPads and iPhones, has made substantial progress toward improving safety and other working conditions at three of its Chinese plants dedicated to making Apple products. But it has not yet achieved the most difficult goal: reducing the average workweek to the maximum allowed by Chinese law, a global monitoring group said on Thursday.
The auditors, supervised by the Fair Labor Association, said Foxconn was still working toward lowering the average workweek to the 49-hour cap. And labor unions at the plants that are supposed to represent the workers’ interests are still dominated by management, the association said.
Still, the average workweek has come down sharply from the typical 60 hours or more that has been common practice at the Chinese suppliers of Apple and other technology companies.
Although the auditors declined to be specific about the length of the Foxconn workweek, Apple has said that it has been working to reduce the long hours put in by workers at its suppliers, which are mostly in China.
In a statement on its supplier responsibility Web site, the company said for more than a million workers in its global supply network that it tracked in 2012, “the average hours worked per week was under 50.”
An Apple spokesman, Steve Dowling, declined to discuss the specifics of the Fair Labor Association audit, which he said was done independently of Apple. Foxconn could not be reached for comment on Thursday.
But Mr. Dowling said Apple has been working closely with its suppliers and conducting its own monitoring to improve conditions at the factories that make its products, and the company has posted public progress reports on its Web site.
Foxconn, part of the Taiwan-based company Hon Hai Precision Industry, employs about 178,000 workers at the three factories inspected. It has about 1.2 million workers at plants making products for Apple, Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Microsoft and other technology companies.
Foxconn has been under intense scrutiny for several years because of working conditions inside its factories. Investigations by The New York Times, outside groups and Apple’s own supplier responsibility officials have found illegal amounts of overtime, crowded working conditions, under-age workers and improper disposal of hazardous waste. Industrial accidents have injured and killed Foxconn workers, and the company also experienced a wave of worker suicides.
Labor and consumer activists have pressured Apple, one of the most profitable companies in the world, to do more to improve conditions for the people who make its products. The monthly earnings of Foxconn workers making Apple products are currently about $500.
Apple joined the Fair Labor Association, or F.L.A., in January 2012, and asked the group to audit its suppliers, beginning with Foxconn. The labor group has periodically inspected Foxconn factories in Guanlan, Longhua and Chengdu since February 2012 and interviewed thousands of workers. The audits are paid for by Apple.
After the first inspection, Apple and Foxconn agreed to an action plan of 360 items to be completed by July 1, 2013. As of January, 98.3 percent of them had been achieved, the group’s report said.
Most of the items were “housekeeping issues,” said Auret van Heerden, chief executive of the F.L.A., in an interview Thursday. “Those things they plowed through.”
But Foxconn has also addressed more substantive problems, Mr. van Heerden said. For example, in fire safety, the company added more escape routes and cleared choke points after the auditors asked it to test the evacuation of buildings during shift change, when plants are most crowded. “We were, in a way, looking for trouble,” he said.
He noted that Foxconn has also overhauled many processes, including using robots instead of people to polish the aluminum backs of iPad cases and water to capture and dispose of the resulting dust. An aluminum dust explosion in May 2011 at Foxconn’s Chengdu factory killed three workers and injured more than a dozen others.
Critics of the F.L.A. and Foxconn said the most recent audit played down problems found by other investigators, such as unpaid overtime and Foxconn’s use of unpaid interns.
“Over all, the F.L.A.’s reporting on Foxconn continues to be unjustifiably rosy,” Scott Nova, executive director of the Workers Rights Consortium, a university-backed group that monitors apparel factories worldwide, said in an e-mail.

Foxconn Tries to Move Past the iPhone
New York Times (blog)
TAIPEI, Taiwan — Terry Gou did almost everything that Apple could ask for. He made all those iPhones — and he made them cheap. When Apple was subsequently criticized for low wages and poor working conditions at his factories in China, it was Mr. Gou ...
See all stories on this topic »
New York Times (blog)
 2010.10.26 郭台銘:供應鏈拯救世界作者:富士康科技集團董事長郭台銘編者按:本文是由郭台銘本月在清華大學“清華全球管理論壇”上的發言稿整理而成全世界的產業都在變,供應鏈也在變。供應鏈無所不包,可大可小。資金的供應是一個供應鏈,能源也有能源的供應鏈。我從電子行業的角度來談談供應鏈。十年前,我在台灣做過一個演講。我講了網絡時代的三個特色,一個叫如虎添翼,一個叫虛擬世界,一個叫無遠弗界。什麼叫如虎添翼?如果你是老虎的話,互聯網就是你的翅膀。如果你是老鼠的話,你加一個翅膀變成一個蝙蝠。我們目前互聯網大部分能夠滿足的是眼睛和耳朵的,你可以聽音樂,你可以讀書。但是你鼻子要聞的和嘴巴要接觸的,互聯網還滿足不了。這是虛擬世界。前天是我的生日,我不能回家過生日。我的女兒一歲多,一定要跟我通電話,可是她還不太會講話。我用我們公司的視頻設備和她見面。她一直拿糖果想給我吃,但是沒有辦法接觸到我,她就覺得很奇怪。昨天中午,在我香港和思科的最高主管開會。我跟他講,我用你那個視頻設備和我女兒聊天,我女兒給我餅乾吃,我沒有辦法吃到,沒有辦法聞到它的香味。他說他要開發這項技術。我在清華大學捐了納米中心,我​​們正在做納米的方便麵。你在互聯網上一按,方便麵就可以直接泡了。當然現在還沒有到這個境界,也許將來有一天可以實現。第三個無遠弗界。現在買東西可以全世界範圍內比較。互聯網在改變現在的供應鏈,所以現在的供應鏈要急速發展,更有效率。我們做一台電視機,從韓國把麵板運到中國,運到南京做組裝,然後送到很多地方裝電視機,再送到賣場,再送到你家裡。你曉得整個供應鏈有多少?七八年前,我曾經和索尼的供應主管談到,在CRT(使用陰極射線管(Cathode Ray Tube)的顯示器——譯者註)時代,價錢不會高高低低。我今年賣不了,明年可以賣。因為它有獨特的技術,今年不暢銷的機型,明年可以打發沃爾瑪賣掉。 CRT從生產到零售店,整個供應鍊是126天。索尼內部希望把它縮短成64天,怎麼都做不到。現在TFT(Thin Film Transistor,即薄膜場效應晶體管,用於液晶顯示器——編者註)出來。 TFT跟半導體一樣,都是半導體製成,任何電子產品只要經過半導體的製成, 都會有供需不平衡,永遠是供大於需跟需大於供並存。因為,供給面是呈階梯式的成長。每一次供貨出來,突然增加很多。但是需求面是呈線性的,所以永遠有一半是供大於需,另一半是需大於供。我常常談到很多中國的電視公司,有很多人是賠錢做的。從台灣買來面板,運到惠州組裝,再運到法國去賣。從供應鏈上看。他買的時候是需求大於供應,價錢就漲,所以他買的面板成本就很貴。如果海運的話,一塊大的TFT大概55寸,40寸,42寸,一塊面板從工廠出來運到德國,大概要75天的時間。這樣長的時間裡,一塊面板可以從一千塊美金每片跌到六百塊美金。如果這個時候他走空運,空運費一百塊美金,他還可以後來者居上,還可以便宜兩三百塊美金。所以, 整個電子業的供應鏈有很大的改善空間。我正好從事這個行業,我們有半導體工業,也有TFT。我們在台灣和大陸的工廠,現在都面臨供應鏈的問題。去年、前年經濟不景氣,半導體的投資放緩, 現在突然生意好起來了。蓋廠要18個月,大家要搶資源,所以整個的供應鏈要重新連起來。我們公司現在正在中國做實驗,在做這樣幾件事情:東部沿海工廠要往西遷。比如說,我們最近在重慶、成都、鄭州、武漢設廠。搬遷最大的問題也是供應鏈的問題。怎樣縮短這個供應鏈?必須要做到垂直整合,必須要跟客戶保持最暢通的聯繫。我們把中間經過的很多的倉庫, 很多的過程進行整合,然後做直接有效的管理。我正在做這些方面的努力。在中國我們也在推動“萬馬奔騰”計劃,很多員工回家鄉創業,我們鼓勵他們自己創業當老闆。中國的供應鏈在大城市已經很成熟。在落後的鄉村地區,在供應鏈夠不到的地方,比如消費者要買一個電視機,維修等等將來會有很多問題。所以在我們公司,只要做滿五年我們就給他一個回鄉創業的機會。我們準備在五年開 一萬家店。我們的員工懂得怎麼維修,怎麼教客戶使用。客戶要買一台電視,我們的工廠就近很短時間就生產。縮短了供應鏈,減少了庫存,也把很多的中間環節的成本降低了,這樣消費者可以得到又快、又便宜的產品。對供應鏈的風險,我想做什麼事情都有風險的。認識風險跟能不能解決風險是兩回事,我是覺得大家都在認識風險,但是怎麼解決風險,我看都未必明白。市場永遠是高高低低,變化無窮。我們對天氣也只能做預測,不能控制天氣。但是,供應鏈的風險,我大概認為,有三個方面我們應該認識,而且要去注意到。第一個就是科技發展過快。怎麼樣在你最短的時間,把你的產品推到世界的每個角落去。你押這個,而沒有押這個​​,可能這個就會把你整個翻盤。台灣的電子業我搞了37年,今年近38個年頭。我們從外銷美國的電視機開始做起,到現在做遊戲機。在半導體和TFT這個領域,很多的技術一直在變。半導體的技術是往小的地方走,TFT是往大的地方走。全世界在研究納米的數控,如果這個技術成熟了,你的庫存可能會變窄。科技發展之快,你是沒有辦法阻擋的。這就是科技可以帶動人類進步的一個原因。這是第一個風險。第二個風險是網絡經濟造成消費者習慣改變過快。日本是一個消費習慣非常封閉的社會。我跟索尼的人談過,日本人很喜歡國貨,但是他沒有想到,iphone在日本賣到手軟,賣到不行。消費者的年齡開始下降,網絡經濟又讓消費者的習慣改變的非常快。我們年紀大了,認定了吃碗炸醬麵,一定要吃醋,山西的年輕人就不吃醋,但是我講的不是男女交往的吃醋,是真的山西人吃的那個醋。這個習慣已經改變,他們喝紅酒,所以消費習慣的改變是一個風險。第三,在中國供應鏈最大問題是世界經濟政治風險,​​比如匯率的風險。所以,我們也是在走國際化的道路。我們主要的“雞蛋”都在中國,但是在歐洲、在墨西哥我們都有工廠。我們也對這個風險有所管理。但是了解風險是一回事,能不能控制風險又是另外一回事。供應鍊是一個非常重要的問題,供應鏈的管理不是只有成品的物流,應該是到製造端的物流,製造的供應鏈,甚至到原材料的供應鏈。整個供應鏈把它串起來,這對於整個經濟的幫助是很大的。大家不要去花太多時間在投資和金融上,應該有一些學生願意研究一個電視機的供應鏈,甚至一個電腦、一個手機的供應鏈。如果誰能夠把供應鏈縮得更短,讓沃爾瑪要賣的時候有貨,不賣的時候就沒有庫存,或者你想賣的時候就有庫存,而庫存不要太高,這是一個很重要的課題。我建議清華的學生更多地關注這個問題,這個能夠產生很大的價值。不管是富士康還是偉創利,還是沃爾瑪,都是你們很好的工作單位,不要去高盛啊,錢的遊戲只是遊戲而已,而供應鏈會拯救我們世界。我就報告到這裡。我並不知道您是否同意我的觀點,但這就是我個人的觀點。

Q: You recently mentioned the HTC One as being priced at $200. I've just been on the phone with my carrier T-Mobile, which offers me the HTC One for $100 down and $20 a month for 24 months. They explain they "no longer offer discounted phones" under their new world order or whatever. Can you explain?
A: In the U.S., carriers traditionally subsidize the price of mobile phones and then make back the money by requiring buyers to sign a two-year contract, so they don't defect before the carrier has made back the subsidy from them. Under this formula, the HTC One is indeed $200 at AT&T T -0.67% .
But T-Mobile recently announced a new approach under which it won't subsidize the phones, but will charge something close to what the phone maker charges it, spread out in monthly payments. In return, it won't require a two-year service contract. In the case of the HTC One and some other high-end smartphones, like the iPhone 5, that amounts to $100 down at purchase, plus $480 over two years—$20 a month. The actual voice and data service is in addition to the cost of the phone.

Case I.
背景: htc 再起機會: the One - the most beautiful Android pho...  2013.4


大多數外資對於宏達電難看的財報數字並不意外,他們早在一個月前就陸續調降宏達電評等。因為,宏達電二月在英國盛大發表的旗艦機﹁新hTC ONE﹂,果然如眾人所擔心地──因供應鏈供貨不及而延遲出貨。

這 次出包的供應商是香港公司──愛佩儀︵APP︶。宏達電執行長周永明敢在發表會上挑戰傳統觀念強調﹁高畫素不等於好相機﹂,就是因為愛佩儀獨家供應相機光 學模組中的音圈馬達︵VCM︶。宏達電是愛佩儀第一家手機客戶,如此未經磨合的初體驗,面對百萬訂單果然﹁卡彈﹂,成為宏達電延遲出貨的關鍵失誤。

出貨延遲,反映出王雪紅在經營上所 犯的第一個錯誤──這家公司的執行力跟不上決策速度。發表之初,愛佩儀就有量產困難,但宏達電未在第一時間就分散風險採用第二供應商,也在發表會之後才陸 續派工程師到愛佩儀深圳工廠協助,據說四月才有數百名人員大量進駐。雖然宏達電不願證實派員協助供應商的確切時間點為何,但,麥格里證券不留情地指出,供 貨要到五月才能完全恢復正常,「讓消費者等待,等於賠錢。」

﹁這樣的問題不是第一次發生,去年底的蝴蝶機也曾有相同情況。﹂蓋欣山說, 宏達電在供應商面前喊水會結凍的勢頭已非兩年前可比擬。二○一二年底,宏達電臨時決定把日本熱賣機種蝴蝶機拉到台灣販售,結果,市場反應很好,但根本拿不 到貨。﹁你去問宏達電、蝴蝶機本來有沒有要在台灣賣?﹂一位今年年初為了搶貨而頭痛不已的通路高層看著鈔票從眼前飛走,更是氣得不得了,大罵宏達電在蝴蝶 機最缺貨的時候,桃園工廠卻老神在在停工三天進行例行年度盤點,讓通路戴著鋼盔被消費者罵臭頭。

一位曾獲得宏達電處長級聘任的業界人士 說,面試時,高階主管很明白地說:﹁這家公司的高層策略常有改變,到職前請有心理準備。﹂這個提醒很中肯,一二年初,宏達電改變以往的機海策略聚焦旗艦機 種,企圖替品牌揚名立威,但如此重大的策略調整卻沒有做好充分準備,從那時起,凡高階旗艦機種總會有量產問題。

﹁ 這家公司的設計部門和生產部門像是活在不同世界,﹂一位不願具名的產業分析師說,宏達電設計的手機因策略調整而被迫採用良率不高的零件,太過大膽。一位專 業人士分析說,宏達電以往的機海策略備料的思惟,與專注旗艦機種的備料方式就是不一樣,如果沒有做好事先完成生產、供應鏈管理一併到位的準備,肯定會出問 題,因為再好的產品,如果無法量產都是一場美麗泡沫;﹁手機是消費性產品,不是藝術品。﹂他強調。


零件風波 新HTC One悄悄改規格 【2013/5/2 21:35】

先前新HTC One的音質效果規格中,擁有「HDR麥克風」。(圖片擷取自網路)
最新的新HTC One音質效果規格中,「HDR麥克風」已被悄悄移除。(圖片擷取自HTC)
〔本報訊〕受到麥克風元件專利權影響,宏達電曾表示會改進新HTC One的麥克風設計,不過替代品還沒公佈,已悄悄把原先的規格移除,重新引起外界對宏達電是否會「缺料」的疑慮。

 意法半導體(ST Microelectronics)同時和諾基亞(Nokia)與宏達電合作,但諾基亞認為,該製造商違反保密條款,因為新HTC One使用的麥克風,部分組件是由諾基亞發明,只能為諾基亞生產,要求意法半導體停止供應HDR麥克風元件給宏達電,荷蘭法院也在上個月23日批准新 HTC One的禁售令。

 宏達電曾表示,荷蘭的判決並不會影響新HTC One的存貨銷售,他們也已著手新款麥克風設計,但事情發生至今,宏達電仍未宣布使用何種替代元件,卻悄悄把「HDR麥克風」移出規格清單中。


Nokia wins ban in the Netherlands on HTC One component

HTC One The HTC One is the Taiwanese firm's flagship smartphone

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Nokia has won a court injunction banning HTC from using microphone components in its flagship HTC One smartphones.
It will create more headaches for the Taiwan-based firm, which has struggled with component shortages.
Nokia said it had taken apart the HTC One and found the high-amplitude audio-capture technology was the same as its own.
HTC said it would be looking for alternatives "immediately".
The ruling made by the Amsterdam District Court is effective until March 2014 and will prevent STMicro, which sells the parts, from offering them to HTC for sale.
The court found the parts had been invented by Nokia and manufactured exclusively for the Finnish company's phones.
Nokia said: "HTC has no licence or authorisation from Nokia to use these microphones or the Nokia technologies from which they have been developed.
"The injunction prevents STMicroelectronics from selling the microphones to anyone except us, anywhere in the world, until 1 March 2014. Its scope is not restricted to the Netherlands.
"The HAAC [high amplitude audio capture] technology used in these microphones is Nokia's and there is no alternate supplier."
In a statement, HTC said it was disappointed by the decision.
"We are considering whether it will have any impact on our business and we will explore alternative solutions immediately," it said.

如何用最快的方式將損失極小化. 它們須要什麼樣的 Materials Management支援.
(電信/安全等各方面的認證是否受到影響? .......


2013年 04月 23日 14:44 JST

[22日 ロイター] フィンランドの携帯電話メーカー、ノキア(NOK1V.HE: 株価, 企業情報, レポート)(NOK.N: 株価, 企業情報, レポート)は、台湾のスマートフォン(多機能携帯電話)メーカー、宏達国際電子(HTC)(2498.TW: 株価, 企業情報, レポート)が「HTC One」で使用しているSTマイクロエレクトロニクス(STM.PA: 株価, 企業情報, レポート)製のマクロホン部品をめぐり、裁判所がHTCに対して使用差し止め命令を出したと発表した。
HTCは基幹製品HTC Oneをめぐって既に部品不足に陥っており、一層の打撃となりそうだ。
ノキアはHTC Oneを分解して、マイクロホンが自社のものと同じであることを突き止めた。


 根據聲明內容,曼罕地方法院(Mannheim Regional Court)先前已駁回2件諾基亞公司(Nokia Oyj)控告宏達電的專利侵權訴訟案,保留其他2件待審。


 Case Study  II

  Case Study  III  加速演變的材料替代品為什麼緊繃我們的資源:Component Engineer

Why It Matters


Gorilla Glass is great, but iPhone screens can still shatter


Your Next Smartphone Screen May Be Made of Sapphire

Manufactured sapphire is incredibly strong and scratch resistant. Now falling costs and technology improvements could make it competitive with glass.

Manufactured sapphire—a material that’s used as transparent armor on military vehicles—could become cheap enough to replace the glass display covers on mobile phones. That could mean smartphone screens that don’t crack when you drop them and can’t be scratched with keys, or even by a concrete sidewalk.
Sapphire, a crystalline form of aluminum oxide, probably won’t ever be as cheap as Gorilla Glass, the durable material from Corning that’s used to make screens on iPhones and other smartphones. A Gorilla Glass display costs less than $3, while a sapphire display would cost about $30. But that could fall below $20 in a couple of years thanks to increased competition and improving technology, says Eric Virey, an analyst for the market research firm Yole Développement. And since sapphire performs better than glass, that price could make it cheap enough to compete, he says.
Sapphire is harder than any other natural material except diamond; by some measures, it’s three times stronger than Gorilla Glass, and it is also about three times more scratch resistant. That’s why Apple uses it now to protect the camera on its iPhone 5. Virey says that all major mobile-phone makers are considering using sapphire to replace glass. “I’m convinced that some will start testing the water and release some high-end smartphones using sapphire in 2013,” he says.
An alternative to using pure sapphire is to laminate an ultrathin layer of sapphire with another, cheaper transparent material, maintaining much of the performance advantage of sapphire at a cost comparable to that of the glass typical in mobile-phone displays.
For this purpose, GT Advanced Technologies, based in Nashua, New Hampshire, is developing a method for making sapphire sheets thinner than a human hair—much thinner than the nearly millimeter-thick glass used now on mobile phones. (The technology, originally developed for making very thin solar cells, was acquired from Twin Creeks Technologies. See “Startup Aims to Cut the Cost of Solar Cells in Half.”)
GT is also cutting the cost of sapphire manufacturing by following the strategy that it used over the last several years to reduce the cost of making crystalline silicon for solar cells.
To make the sapphire, aluminum oxide is melted down in a specialized furnace and then allowed to slowly cool to form a large crystal. That crystal is then cut with a diamond-coated wire saw. GT designs its furnaces so that they can be cheaply upgraded to make ever larger crystals as the technology improves, allowing customers to increase production without buying new equipment.
GT is more optimistic about prices than Virey, estimating that sapphire displays might cost only three to four times as much as those made from Gorilla Glass. People at the company say prices will fall further as GT improves its furnaces, and as the manufacturers that buy those furnaces streamline their operations.
Several other companies with proprietary technologies are also lowering the cost of sapphire, including Rubicon Technologies in the United States, Monocrystal in Russia, and Sapphire Technology in South Korea. If costs can get low enough, these manufacturers may have a large market waiting for them. But they’ll have to continue to contend with the incumbent technologies—Gorilla Glass and similar materials offered by other manufacturers. This year Corning introduced a new version of the material that it says is about twice as resistant to scratches. It could be in products later this year.


verify Show phonetics
verb [T]
to prove that something exists or is true, or to make certain that something is correct:
Are you able to verify your account/allegation/report/theory?
These figures are surprisingly high and they'll have to be verified.
[+ (that)] Under interrogation, she verified (that) the tapes were authentic.

verifiable Show phonetics
able to be proved:
Throughout the trial, he didn't produce a single verifiable fact.

verification Show phonetics
noun [U]

Verification: 驗證;查證;檢定;檢證;證明;校準;鑑定;確認;(日本)立証[証明]

【類似】:Validation: 驗證;驗效;確認;妥當性檢查

確定某產品或服務合乎諸要求的措施。 (The act of determining whether products and services conform to specific requirements.)

Obama, Denied Full Victory on 2 Issues, Takes Validation
From Copenhagen to Capitol Hill, the president determined the outer limits of what he could accomplish on climate change and health care and decided that was enough, for now.

━━ vt. (法律的に)有効にする; 認可する; 確認[公認]する; 【コンピュータ】検証する.
val・i・da・tion ━━ n. 【コンピュータ】妥当性検証.

tr.v., -dat·ed, -dat·ing, -dates.
  1. To declare or make legally valid.
  2. To mark with an indication of official sanction.
  3. To establish the soundness of; corroborate. See synonyms at confirm.
validation val'i·da'tion n.

Verification 指指透過追究、檢試(examinations)並提供客觀之証據,來證實某些特定要求(specific requirements)獲得滿足。並做了某些應該要做的活動(activities)
這verification更常出現在品管述語中,譬如說,在QS-9000標準中有Functional Verification,台灣福特公司翻譯為「功能查證」;還有set-up verification

*****CASE 臺灣壹集團


HC:一直想成是某時報. 猛然想起貴社十年前出刊的封面:SARS台北市沉淪記. 害得我到友達公司演講必須帶口罩. 恭喜你們啦. 希望你們還能繼續業務創新.人民良心.領導周三的新聞台......黎老闆還是一樣再接再勵每天關心你們.......

----CASE  台灣連鎖便利商