2014年7月4日 星期五

A Pattern Language ;The Architecture of Patterns/ 中國機場,「只能在中國出現」的超級工程

Cover for 
A Pattern Language

A Pattern Language

Towns, Buildings, Construction

Christopher Alexander

  • Will enable a person to make a design for almost any kind of building, or any part of the built environment
  • More than 250 patterns are provided for design problems: each consists of a problem statement, a discussion of the problem with an illustration, and a solution.
  • The final title in a series of three books by Christopher Alexander that lays the basis for an entirely new approach to architecture


You can use this book to design a house for yourself with your family; you can use it to work with your neighbors to improve your town and neighborhood; you can use it to design an office, or a workshop, or a public building. And you can use it to guide you in the actual process of construction.

After a ten-year silence, Christopher Alexander and his colleagues at the Center for Environmental Structure are now publishing a major statement in the form of three books which will, in their words, "lay the basis for an entirely new approach to architecture, building and planning, which will we hope replace existing ideas and practices entirely." The three books are The Timeless Way of BuildingThe Oregon Experiment, and this book,A Pattern Language.

At the core of these books is the idea that people should design for themselves their own houses, streets, and communities. This idea may be radical (it implies a radical transformation of the architectural profession) but it comes simply from the observation that most of the wonderful places of the world were not made by architects but by the people.

At the core of the books, too, is the point that in designing their environments people always rely on certain "languages," which, like the languages we speak, allow them to articulate and communicate an infinite variety of designs within a forma system which gives them coherence. This book provides a language of this kind. It will enable a person to make a design for almost any kind of building, or any part of the built environment.

"Patterns," the units of this language, are answers to design problems (How high should a window sill be? How many stories should a building have? How much space in a neighborhood should be devoted to grass and trees?). More than 250 of the patterns in this pattern language are given: each consists of a problem statement, a discussion of the problem with an illustration, and a solution. As the authors say in their introduction, many of the patterns are archetypal, so deeply rooted in the nature of things that it seemly likely that they will be a part of human nature, and human action, as much in five hundred years as they are today.

Table of Contents

A pattern language
Summary of the language
Choosing a language for your project
The poetry of the language
Using the language
Using the language
Using the language

2013.3.10 準備演講重讀一遍 (未完)

讀者沒看過此書的話是很難了解它在講什麼的. 所以這篇只是備忘錄  到網路上讀一下它吧!

這本書容易讓人誤解是專門講建築的書 (書名多義) . 雖然它舉了許多建築的例子

我們通常將C. 亞歷山大的The Pattern Language 翻譯成"模式語言"  (它的發展過程中patternism, or可說是 relationalism)
此書將pattern 翻譯成"圖案"  換句話說 它們字同殊義.

The Architecture of Patterns

Paul Andersen (Author), David Salomon (Author), David Carson (Artist)
With a Foreword by Sanford Kwinter
Overview | Inside the Book
Through a precise and expansive definition of what a pattern is, this book offers ways to understand and use patterns in contemporary design.
From the structure of the universe to the print on your grandmother's couch, patterns are found in a variety of concrete and conceptual phenomena. For architecture, something that so easily traffics between science and taste demands attention, which partially explains patterns' recent revival across diverse stylistic and intellectual camps. Yet, despite their ubiquity, their resurgence remains un-theorized and their capabilities underutilized. To date no account has been given for their recent proliferation, nor have their various formal and functional capacities been examined. In fact, the relationship between patterns and architecture hasn't been addressed in almost 30 years.

This book fills that gap by tracking the definitions and applications of patterns in a number of fields, and by suggesting how contemporary patterns might be used in design. Drawing on historical material and recent case studies, it gives shape to patterns' emerging potential. The Architecture of Patterns provides an updated definition of patterns that is at once precise and expansive-one that allows their sensory, ephemeral, and iterative traits to be taken as seriously as their functional, everlasting, and essential ones.

Book design by David Carson. Foreword by Sanford Kwinter. Projects by Atelier Manferdini, Bjarke Ingels Group, Ciro Najle, EMERGENT/Thomas Wiscombe, Foreign Office Architects, Jason Payne and Heather Roberge, Herzog and de Meuron, J. Mayer H. Architects, Reiser+Umemoto, Responsive Systems Group, and !ndie architecture.

Book Details

  • Paperback
  • October 2010
  • ISBN 978-0-393-73293-1
  • 6 × 9.1 in / 144 pages

  • Territory Rights: Worldwide

Endorsements & Reviews

“[T]he authors’ frequent repetition of the idea that architecture is — at its heart — the synthesis of many patterns of ‘spatial and temporal demands, integrating material and social behaviors and combining cultural trends [and] formal desires’ is profound.” — Ann Lok Lui, ArchNewsNow
“[B]oldly designed and visually punctuated by art director David Carson.” — Architects + Artisans
“[T]he graphic design (images, fonts, horizontal layout) works with the words to create spreads that highlight the smaller, intricate ideas within the larger pattern of the book’s complex theorizations.” — John Hill, Daily Dose of Architecture
“[F]ascinating read. You will immediately see, upon opening the book, just how patterns play a significant role within architectural design…. I think more books like this should emerge where authors take on new perspectives that help us to further explain to ourselves the merits of architectural 'properties' that have been not fully understood, or maximized for the particularities and challenges of our own evolving era.... I highly recommend this book.... [A] must-read.” — Sensing Architecture
“Wise words, well-served….Quirky, thinky and surprising, this soft-cover book is a piece of art unto itself, thanks to its smart observations and clever design. The authors find the patterns of the 21st century —in weavings, on manhole covers, on the bottom of sneakers — and argue them as an inspirational starting point for building design.” — The Denver Post
“The book offers captivating surprises as it unveils how patterns link seemingly disjointed categories, such as botany and graffiti or sensation and organization…redefines patterns, illuminating their transient and sensory traits that are often overlooked. It offers designers an abundance of ways to showcase the unique traits of patterns and incorporate them into smart and innovative designs.” — Zoe Namerow, Contract Magazine's "Talk Contract" blog

 這種書很難翻譯  而此書翻譯得不好 或錯誤很多啦
圖案之於建築出版社: 山東畫報出版社; 第1版(2012年6月1日)外文書名: The Architecture of Patterns平裝: 155頁正文語種: 簡體中文開本: 32



保羅·安德森:美國! ndie 建築設計工作室的創辦人,註冊建築師,哈佛大學設計學院建築系設計評論家。大衛·所羅門:美國加州大學洛杉磯分校建築學專業評論研究博士,雪城大學建築系助理教授。目錄序 泛圖案主義

Pan-Patternism1 多面手的力量

The Power of the Generalist2 原則+基元

Principles + Primitives3 變化和多樣性

Variation + Variety4 千變萬化的圖案

Protean Pattern圖片鳴謝鳴謝註釋



Eugene Hoshiko/Associated Press

“他們對建造很在行,知道怎麼做更有效率,”參與了上海新航站樓設計工作的美國蘭德隆與布朗公司(Landrum & Brown)首席執行官傑弗里·N·托馬斯(Jeffrey N. Thomas)說,“這片區域從一紙規劃變成一片連綿1400萬平方英尺的複雜工程,耗時還不到四年。這可是很難的。”
今年,它可能會超過亞特蘭大的哈茲菲爾德-傑克遜國際機場(Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport),成為全球最繁忙的機場。
蘇格蘭皇家銀行(Royal Bank of Scotland)駐香港經濟學家高路易(Louis Kuijs)說:“這裡是傾向於鼓勵投資的,這跟中國依然有大量剩餘勞動力有關,工程的成本會因此低廉很多。”
在上海,機場主管部門協助設立了上海申虹投資發展有限公司來開發新的交通樞紐,提振機場周邊的區域。該計劃包括建設一個新的商業中心區,有由香港開 發商瑞安房地產有限公司開發的寫字樓、五星級酒店和大型綜合商業項目。開發商還聘請了美國建築師本·伍德(Ben Wood),熱鬧的上海新天地商務與娛樂區就是他設計的。
所以,儘管倫敦希思羅機場(Heathrow Airport)的5號航站樓完工時耗時近六年、耗資達65億美元,與之規模相當的虹橋機場2號航站樓的建造時長卻不到前者的二分之一,耗資則只有前者的 三分之一。2010年初開放時,虹橋機場2號航站樓設立了80個登機手續值機櫃檯,年航班處理能力達到30萬架次。去年,該機場起落的航班達到了23.4 萬架次。
2號航站樓內部有星巴克咖啡(Starbucks)、阿瑪尼(Armani)、傑尼亞(Zegna)、愛馬仕(Hermès)和寶格麗 (Bulgari)等店鋪,是一個招租的免稅購物區和辦公場所。航站樓外,連接地鐵站和航站樓的商場開發進度較慢。但政府稱航站樓是能夠盈利的。
德高中國(JCDecaux China)的一名高管稱,公司幫助機場方面規劃2號航站樓的超大戶內和戶外廣告展示。這名發言人說上海的廣告費一年可高達200萬美元,在某些情況下這個費率比美國或歐洲還高。
“我們將改變對我們機場的管理方式,如機場怎樣進行融資和怎樣建設工程等,”北美國際機場協會(Airports Council International North America)會長格雷格·普林奇帕托(Greg Principato)說,該協會代表着美國約450個商用機場。
John Schwartz自紐約對本文有報道貢獻。

Airports in China Hew to an Unswerving Flight Path

Eugene Hoshiko/Associated Press
A boarding gate area at Hongqiao Airport’s second terminal in Shanghai, shown in 2010. The city relocated 10,000 residents to enable the construction.
SHANGHAI — For those frustrated with air travel in the United States, arriving at this city’s domestic airport can be a treat.
New arrivals are whisked on electronic walkways through a bright, spacious airport terminal that features elegant lounges, free Wi-Fi, speedy security checks and an efficient baggage handling system.
This is what the best airports now look like in the world’s second-largest economy.
Three years after it opened, Terminal 2 at Hongqiao International Airport in Shanghai stands as a testament to China’s economic ambitions, and to its unique approach to infrastructure development.
With extraordinary government support, Shanghai built a massive airport terminal in 32 months as part of a $9 billion transportation hub that connects the air terminal with the city’s buses, subway platforms and a new high-speed railway network.
“They know how to build things and how to do it efficiently,” said Jeffrey N. Thomas, chief executive of Landrum & Brown, an American firm that helped design the new Shanghai terminal. “That area went from plans on a piece of paper to a complex that has 14 million square feet in less than four years. That’s hard to do.”
At a time when many American airports are falling into disrepair, China is quickening its air travel development, with plans to build nearly 100 more airports by 2015, including some at high altitudes, where special landing gear is required. Many of those airports are expected to lose money, but that hasn’t deterred the government, which views the expansion of infrastructure as vital to economic development.
China’s big-city airports are already colossal. Last year, Beijing Capital International Airport handled 81 million passengers, up from 27 million in 2002.
This year, it could surpass Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport to become the world’s busiest.
In Shanghai, Pudong Airport — which operates 25 miles east of Hongqiao as the city’s international gateway — has so many flights it plans to add a fourth and fifth runway, something few other airports in the world possess.
The quality and speed with which China builds its big city airports is impressive. But whether China holds any lessons for airport development in America, or Europe for that matter, is unclear, analysts say.
China’s building programs are supported by an authoritarian political system that brooks no challenges. When the government decides to build or expand an airport, there are no public hearings or any public protests of note.
And while economists ponder the long-term consequences of that decision-making process, this country’s leaders push ahead with new megaprojects.
“There’s a pro-investment bias here, partly because the country still has so much surplus labor, which makes it a lot cheaper to build,” said Louis Kuijs, an economist at the Royal Bank of Scotland based in Hong Kong. “And this is a country that knows how to build. Look at the Great Wall!”
Terminal 2 at Hongqiao Airport is one of those “this could only happen in China” developments. With Terminal 1 congested, the city announced plans in 2006 for a new transportation hub to cover 10 square miles, a project that when complete is likely to be the world’s largest transit hub with about 1.1 million passengers a day.
To build it, the city cleared 10,000 residents from a huge plot of land west of Hongqiao by building new apartments for them a few miles away. Because the state owns all land in China, and residents have little bargaining power, local governments and developers often benefit from lower development costs.
And in the case of the transportation hub, once the land was cleared, state-run banks lined up to lend money to the project.
“The relocation and acquiring of land this size, only China can do it,” said Cao Longjin, general manager of Shanghai Rainbow Investments, a state-run company that helped develop the hub. “It’s a miracle.”
When China went on an earlier airport-building spree in the 1980s and early 1990s, things didn’t go quite so smoothly. The airports tended to be poorly designed and minimally functional, and usually lost money.
Now, big cities are flush with cash from a real estate boom. Government officials take part in overseas fact-finding missions, hire international consultants and set up joint ventures that improve the chances that the biggest airports will turn a profit.
In Shanghai, the city’s airport authority helped set up Shanghai Rainbow Investments to develop the new transportation hub and revitalize the area around it. The plan includes a new central business district with towers, five-star hotels and a vast mixed-use commercial project created by the Hong Kong developer Shui On Land. The developer hired the American architect Ben Wood, who designed Shanghai’s popular Xintiandi commercial and entertainment district.
City officials also designed Terminal 2 with profit-making ventures in mind, modeled on airports in London, Hong Kong and Singapore, where terminals double as vibrant shopping malls, packed with duty-free shopping and restaurants.
“We looked at what areas of an airport are profitable and which are typically not profitable,” said Liu Wujun, chief technical officer at the Shanghai Airport Authority and one of the main planners behind Terminal 2. “The areas that tend to be profitable we made as large as possible; the areas not so profitable we made as small as possible.”
The result was smaller roadways alongside the airport (not so profitable), and larger hotels, retail outlets and cargo-processing sections (more profitable).
Atlanta’s airport is one of the world’s most cost competitive, with about 70 percent of its revenue from nonaviation areas like shops and parking. That is Shanghai’s model, Mr. Liu said.
Part of the profitability equation involved lowering the cost of construction. And experts say that comes easier in China, where aggressive building schedules are the norm.
Shanghai, for instance, hired more than 13,000 construction workers to develop the transportation hub and did what many projects here do: it instituted a 24/7 construction schedule. Commuting time was minimal since most of the workers lived on site.
So while Heathrow Airport Terminal 5 in London took nearly six years to build and cost $6.5 billion, Hongqiao’s Terminal 2, roughly the same size, was built in less than half the time for a third of the cost. When it opened in early 2010, Terminal 2 had 80 check-in counters and capacity to handle 300,000 flights a year. Last year, the airport handled 234,000 flights.
Inside, Terminal 2 was also fitted with Starbucks coffee, Armani, Zegna, Hermès and Bulgari stores, a duty-free shopping area and office space for lease. Outside the terminal, a shopping mall that connects the railway station with the airport terminal has been slow to develop. But the government says the terminal is profitable.
With more than 30 million passengers expected to pass through its halls this year, billboard advertising comes at a premium.
But rather than sign a deal to lease out the billboards, the city’s airport authority brokered a potentially more lucrative deal in 2005 by forming a joint venture with JCDecaux, the French outdoor advertising giant, one that gives the airport a majority stake.
An executive at JCDecaux China says the company helped the airport authority plan Terminal 2 with oversize indoor and outdoor advertising displays in mind. Rates in Shanghai, the spokesman said, can be as high as $2 million a year, in some cases higher than rates in the United States or Europe.
Chinese airports have other financing advantages over the United States, like higher landing fees for airlines and mandatory airport construction fees paid by passengers, as much as $13 a flight.
A 1973 law prohibiting airports in the United States from charging passenger fees was changed in 1990. In 2000, the fee was raised to $4.50 a flight, about half as much as China’s fee, though airfares are higher in the United States.
In the United States, there are warnings that the poor state of infrastructure at American airports is likely to hold back the industry, and that one of the impediments is the way government restricts financing options.
“We’re going to have to change the way our airports are regulated in terms of how they finance things and how they put projects in place,” said Greg Principato, president of the Airports Council International North America, which represents the nation’s roughly 450 commercial airports.
Of course, with expansion China’s airports will face tough management challenges, particularly if labor costs rise and air traffic slows. There are also concerns among some analysts who study economic development that China’s airport program is excessive and that the country’s high-speed rail is likely to erode the profitability of airports.
But Mr. Liu, the chief technical officer at Shanghai’s airport authority, jokes about how much more profit-oriented state-owned operators are in China. “The difference between here and the U.S. is that in the U.S., the government manages the nonprofit parts of an airport and gives the profitable parts to the private sector,” he said, laughing. “The U.S. way is more socialist and the Chinese more capitalist.”
John Schwartz contributed reporting from New York.