2014年7月11日 星期五

7/12(六):雲門舞集年度戶外公演;詩的行使.詩人李敏勇新書發表會




參加「詩的行使.詩人李敏勇新書發表會」。新書是
《聽,台灣在吟唱》、《聽,世界在吟唱》。選詩和印刷精美。
《李敏勇.簡志忠》師生詩歌經驗對談(台語),很精彩,應該整理出來發表。

李敏勇作品 (2):《聽,台灣在吟唱》、《聽,世界在吟唱》

http://hcbooks.blogspot.tw/2014/07/2.html


接到掛號請帖,必須推一下.......
聽,台灣在吟唱
聽,世界在吟唱
主  題: 詩的行使.詩人李敏勇新書發表會
時  間: 7/12(六)下午3:00
講  者: 國家文藝獎得主 李敏勇.圓神社長 簡志忠
地  點: 93巷人文空間(台北市松江路93巷2號2樓)
主辦單位: 圓神出版
報名方式: 免費入場,請提早入座
活動內容: 詩人李敏勇精心編選及解說,10位台灣詩人、10位世界詩人經典詩作,帶您從「心」品味讀詩的樂趣,在庸碌世界中洗滌靈魂的及時雨,您絕對不能錯過的文化饗宴!




-----




今天晚上七點半,是響譽全球的當代舞團,由台灣知名雲門舞集年度戶外公演:(渡海1978)、(水月1998)、(松煙2003行草貳)、(如果沒有你2011);創辦人林懷民恩師領軍40位舞者、行政人員加志工100位等人現場服務大眾,舞出40年精粹,地點:台北中正紀念堂戶外廣場,由國泰人壽金控贊助19年的盛典維持文化與企業支持藝文活動,不是以利益出發,在此推薦週末觀賞的好演出,感恩臺灣有雲門...期待更多補助給本土的演藝術家們。

2014年7月9日 星期三

第12屆吳德耀人文講座-高承恕:綠苑春濃五十年:東海心情;業專精‧心寬闊:看大世界

由通識教育中心主辦之「第12屆吳德耀人文講座-暑期通識營」將在下週一(7/14)展開,活動第一天的兩場主題講座開放參與,歡迎有興趣的師長、同學到場聆聽。

時間:2014年7月14日9:00-12:00
地點:東海大學語文館LAN007
講題:綠苑春濃五十年:東海心情
講者:高承恕 教授

時間:2014年7月14日15:30-17:30
地點:東海大學語文館LAN007
講題:業專精‧心寬闊:看大世界
講者:高承恕 教授

唐香燕【長歌行過美麗島】(4599協會(賜福久久))





20140708-14_後排-吳良志,許翠紅,鄭超睿夫婦,張百達夫婦,廖崇仁,前排-劉定泮,徐信得牧師,主講人 唐香燕, 王欣愉,游常山
— 在三一教會



與二十位朋友一起行過美麗島
四五九九 週二講堂 唐香燕場次記錄
這是我們第二十五次舉辦週二講堂,回到民生社區三一教會,也首度邀請新書作者唐香燕來朗誦她的新書:【長歌行過美麗島】。

非常驚喜,這次吸引了十二位從未來過的新朋友!
其中,六位,是全家一起來,香燕以前【漢聲雜誌】(Echo)編輯部的同事,也是我【天下雜誌】前輩,謝慧娟,帶著她先生何英超、女兒何容(國小高年級年紀?)一家三口,還有我首度見面、臉書神交二年的、獨立出版社負責人、虔誠基督徒的鄭超睿先生,與他任教宜蘭羅東高商、擔任英文科老師的妻子許玉青老師、未滿周歲的女兒(好可愛,輕輕啼哭,充滿生命力,三一教會充滿生之喜悅!)也是一家三口到齊。

還有,香燕的好友,立委陳歐珀的特助、我十多年以前在民進黨中央黨部有過幾面之緣份的,張百達,也和他博學的妻子、留學法國、專攻當代法國哲學的黃雅嫻博士,聯袂到來。
台大歷史系博士生、專攻當代台灣政治史的周馥儀,也想和她的老師、台大歷史系教授陳翠蓮的名著【百年追求】,對照閱讀,特別來聽香燕朗誦。

台灣藝術大學劇本創作所碩士,王欣愉小姐,特別從新莊趕來,她說是受到也寫了本有意義新書的瞿筱葳的鼓勵和通知而來參加。瞿筱葳是知名社會學教授,瞿海源的女兒,前年以祖母的人生故事和手路菜,寫了本感人的書籍。

香燕也請瞿筱葳寫了序,所以【長歌行過美麗島】。光是讀序,就非常精彩。

香燕謙稱不會演講,以朗誦三段內文,從【外省女兒】【美麗島新娘】【世界母親】
分別抽取一段來分享,非常別開生面。
其實,香燕擔任過六年的中學國文老師,怎不會演講,只是她的講話,也像是她的文章,那樣看似尋常,卻又幽深雋永,耐人尋味。
這是一種底蘊深厚的文學況味啊!難怪吸引這麼多書迷。

四五九九最近十次,以本次出席者最多,且新來者佔多數,實在是難得。

還有,台語專家、在汐止四家國小擔任母語教學的廖崇仁(Justin Rio)老師、從東吳會計系畢業多年、移民加拿大後又回到台北的肯納基金會志工、吳良志先生,都分享了寶貴的人生經驗,和家族故事。讓現場激起更多心靈溝通的感動。

這是一場意義重大的週二講堂,感謝唐香燕寫了這麼一本感人至深的回憶錄,使我們有共同的文本,來一起回顧我們的生命史、家族史。

2014年7月4日 星期五

A Pattern Language ;The Architecture of Patterns/ 中國機場,「只能在中國出現」的超級工程

Cover for 
A Pattern Language

A Pattern Language

Towns, Buildings, Construction

Christopher Alexander

  • Will enable a person to make a design for almost any kind of building, or any part of the built environment
  • More than 250 patterns are provided for design problems: each consists of a problem statement, a discussion of the problem with an illustration, and a solution.
  • The final title in a series of three books by Christopher Alexander that lays the basis for an entirely new approach to architecture



















Description

You can use this book to design a house for yourself with your family; you can use it to work with your neighbors to improve your town and neighborhood; you can use it to design an office, or a workshop, or a public building. And you can use it to guide you in the actual process of construction.

After a ten-year silence, Christopher Alexander and his colleagues at the Center for Environmental Structure are now publishing a major statement in the form of three books which will, in their words, "lay the basis for an entirely new approach to architecture, building and planning, which will we hope replace existing ideas and practices entirely." The three books are The Timeless Way of BuildingThe Oregon Experiment, and this book,A Pattern Language.

At the core of these books is the idea that people should design for themselves their own houses, streets, and communities. This idea may be radical (it implies a radical transformation of the architectural profession) but it comes simply from the observation that most of the wonderful places of the world were not made by architects but by the people.

At the core of the books, too, is the point that in designing their environments people always rely on certain "languages," which, like the languages we speak, allow them to articulate and communicate an infinite variety of designs within a forma system which gives them coherence. This book provides a language of this kind. It will enable a person to make a design for almost any kind of building, or any part of the built environment.

"Patterns," the units of this language, are answers to design problems (How high should a window sill be? How many stories should a building have? How much space in a neighborhood should be devoted to grass and trees?). More than 250 of the patterns in this pattern language are given: each consists of a problem statement, a discussion of the problem with an illustration, and a solution. As the authors say in their introduction, many of the patterns are archetypal, so deeply rooted in the nature of things that it seemly likely that they will be a part of human nature, and human action, as much in five hundred years as they are today.

Table of Contents

USING THIS BOOK 
A pattern language
Summary of the language
Choosing a language for your project
The poetry of the language
TOWNS 
Using the language
Patterns
BUILDINGS 
Using the language
Patterns
CONSTRUCTION 
Using the language
Patterns
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS













2013.3.10 準備演講重讀一遍 (未完)

讀者沒看過此書的話是很難了解它在講什麼的. 所以這篇只是備忘錄  到網路上讀一下它吧!


這本書容易讓人誤解是專門講建築的書 (書名多義) . 雖然它舉了許多建築的例子
 不過也可以將它認為是談生物上的或幾何上的....


我們通常將C. 亞歷山大的The Pattern Language 翻譯成"模式語言"  (它的發展過程中patternism, or可說是 relationalism)
此書將pattern 翻譯成"圖案"  換句話說 它們字同殊義.



The Architecture of Patterns

Paul Andersen (Author), David Salomon (Author), David Carson (Artist)
With a Foreword by Sanford Kwinter
Overview | Inside the Book
 
Through a precise and expansive definition of what a pattern is, this book offers ways to understand and use patterns in contemporary design.
From the structure of the universe to the print on your grandmother's couch, patterns are found in a variety of concrete and conceptual phenomena. For architecture, something that so easily traffics between science and taste demands attention, which partially explains patterns' recent revival across diverse stylistic and intellectual camps. Yet, despite their ubiquity, their resurgence remains un-theorized and their capabilities underutilized. To date no account has been given for their recent proliferation, nor have their various formal and functional capacities been examined. In fact, the relationship between patterns and architecture hasn't been addressed in almost 30 years.

This book fills that gap by tracking the definitions and applications of patterns in a number of fields, and by suggesting how contemporary patterns might be used in design. Drawing on historical material and recent case studies, it gives shape to patterns' emerging potential. The Architecture of Patterns provides an updated definition of patterns that is at once precise and expansive-one that allows their sensory, ephemeral, and iterative traits to be taken as seriously as their functional, everlasting, and essential ones.

Book design by David Carson. Foreword by Sanford Kwinter. Projects by Atelier Manferdini, Bjarke Ingels Group, Ciro Najle, EMERGENT/Thomas Wiscombe, Foreign Office Architects, Jason Payne and Heather Roberge, Herzog and de Meuron, J. Mayer H. Architects, Reiser+Umemoto, Responsive Systems Group, and !ndie architecture.

Book Details

  • Paperback
  • October 2010
  • ISBN 978-0-393-73293-1
  • 6 × 9.1 in / 144 pages

  • Territory Rights: Worldwide

Endorsements & Reviews

“[T]he authors’ frequent repetition of the idea that architecture is — at its heart — the synthesis of many patterns of ‘spatial and temporal demands, integrating material and social behaviors and combining cultural trends [and] formal desires’ is profound.” — Ann Lok Lui, ArchNewsNow
“[B]oldly designed and visually punctuated by art director David Carson.” — Architects + Artisans
“[T]he graphic design (images, fonts, horizontal layout) works with the words to create spreads that highlight the smaller, intricate ideas within the larger pattern of the book’s complex theorizations.” — John Hill, Daily Dose of Architecture
“[F]ascinating read. You will immediately see, upon opening the book, just how patterns play a significant role within architectural design…. I think more books like this should emerge where authors take on new perspectives that help us to further explain to ourselves the merits of architectural 'properties' that have been not fully understood, or maximized for the particularities and challenges of our own evolving era.... I highly recommend this book.... [A] must-read.” — Sensing Architecture
“Wise words, well-served….Quirky, thinky and surprising, this soft-cover book is a piece of art unto itself, thanks to its smart observations and clever design. The authors find the patterns of the 21st century —in weavings, on manhole covers, on the bottom of sneakers — and argue them as an inspirational starting point for building design.” — The Denver Post
“The book offers captivating surprises as it unveils how patterns link seemingly disjointed categories, such as botany and graffiti or sensation and organization…redefines patterns, illuminating their transient and sensory traits that are often overlooked. It offers designers an abundance of ways to showcase the unique traits of patterns and incorporate them into smart and innovative designs.” — Zoe Namerow, Contract Magazine's "Talk Contract" blog

 這種書很難翻譯  而此書翻譯得不好 或錯誤很多啦
圖案之於建築出版社: 山東畫報出版社; 第1版(2012年6月1日)外文書名: The Architecture of Patterns平裝: 155頁正文語種: 簡體中文開本: 32

    
植物學和塗鴉藝術有何關聯?消費者行為與氣泡的結構有什麼關係?圖案將這些毫不相干的主題聯繫在了一起。從宇宙的構成到祖母睡椅上的印花,圖案無處不在。以前它們毫無關聯,但現在關係重大。現今最複雜的圖案都經過了仔細的計算,它們離奇另類、具有物質上的豐富性和行為上的回應性,具備一定的功用,能為感官帶來愉悅。這種多層面的觀點為以前的圖案定義帶來了極大的挑戰,並為建築能夠起重要作用的領域間的相互連接開闢了道路。

 《圖案之於建築》由保羅·安德森、大衛·所羅門所著,本書的獨特之處在於,探尋了圖案在很多領域的定義和應用,並展示了當今的圖案如何在設計中使用。本書利用歷史資料和最新的個案分析,清晰地表述了圖案現在所具有的潛力。作者簡介

     
保羅·安德森:美國! ndie 建築設計工作室的創辦人,註冊建築師,哈佛大學設計學院建築系設計評論家。大衛·所羅門:美國加州大學洛杉磯分校建築學專業評論研究博士,雪城大學建築系助理教授。目錄序 泛圖案主義

    
Pan-Patternism1 多面手的力量

  
The Power of the Generalist2 原則+基元

  
Principles + Primitives3 變化和多樣性

  
Variation + Variety4 千變萬化的圖案

  
Protean Pattern圖片鳴謝鳴謝註釋


****

中國機場,「只能在中國出現」的超級工程

Eugene Hoshiko/Associated Press
2010年上海虹橋機場2號航站樓的一個登機口。為了建設該航站樓,上海市動遷了一萬居民。

上海——對那些已經受夠了在美國坐飛機旅行的人來說,抵達上海這座以國內航線為主的機場是享福了。
剛剛抵達的旅客乘着自動人行傳送帶穿過寬敞明亮的機場候機樓,那裡布置着講究的休息室、免費無線上網、快速安檢,還有一個高效的行李處理系統。
這就是世界第二大經濟體擁有的當今世界最好的機場。
投入使用三年以來,上海虹橋國際機場的2號航站樓已經成為中國經濟雄心的證明,也顯示了它在基礎設施開發上所採取的獨特手段是成功的。
在政府非比尋常的支持下,上海耗時32個月建造了一個規模巨大的機場航站樓,它是耗資90億美元(約合563.48億元人民幣)的交通樞紐的組成部分,該樞紐把航站樓和市政公交系統、地鐵站台、以及一個嶄新的高速鐵路網連成了一體。
“他們對建造很在行,知道怎麼做更有效率,”參與了上海新航站樓設計工作的美國蘭德隆與布朗公司(Landrum & Brown)首席執行官傑弗里·N·托馬斯(Jeffrey N. Thomas)說,“這片區域從一紙規劃變成一片連綿1400萬平方英尺的複雜工程,耗時還不到四年。這可是很難的。”
當很多美國機場陷入年久失修的境地時,中國正在加快航空旅行的發展,中國計劃到2015年要再建設近100個機場,其中包括一些高海拔機場,那裡需要裝備特殊的起落裝置。其中的許多機場預計會賠錢,可這一點沒有嚇退地方政府,他們認為,基礎建設的擴大對經濟發展至關重要。
中國大都市的機場已經異常繁忙。北京首都國際機場的客運量已從2002年的2700萬人次,上升到去年的8100萬人次。
今年,它可能會超過亞特蘭大的哈茲菲爾德-傑克遜國際機場(Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport),成為全球最繁忙的機場。
在上海,浦東機場的航班架次多得迫使它打算增加第四和第五條跑道,全球幾乎沒有幾個機場擁有這麼多條跑道。浦東機場是上海通往全球的大門,位於虹橋機場以東25英里(約合40公里)處。
中國建造大型城市機場的質量和速度令人印象深刻。不過分析人士說,在機場建設上,中國的機場建設經驗能否供美國或歐洲借鑒還很難說。
中國的建設計劃的背後,有一個不容忍任何異議的威權政治體制在支持。當政府決定建造或擴建一個機場時,不會存在公開聽證或任何值得一提的公開抗議。
經濟學家還在思考這種決策流程在長遠上會有什麼後果,而這個國家的領導人已經開始推進新的超級工程了。
蘇格蘭皇家銀行(Royal Bank of Scotland)駐香港經濟學家高路易(Louis Kuijs)說:“這裡是傾向於鼓勵投資的,這跟中國依然有大量剩餘勞動力有關,工程的成本會因此低廉很多。”
虹橋機場2號航站樓就是這樣一種“只能在中國出現”的工程。隨着1號航站樓日漸飽和,上海市於2006年宣布了一個覆蓋面積達10平方英里的新交通樞紐計劃,該工程完工之時,很可能將成為世界上最大的交通樞紐,其日客運量將達到約110萬人。
為了建造這個工程,上海市通過在幾英里之外的地方建造新居的方式,從虹橋機場西部的巨大地塊遷徙出一萬名居民。在中國,由於政府擁有所有土地的產權,居民幾乎沒有討價還價之力,地方政府和開發商常常從較低的開發成本中獲利。
在上海交通樞紐工程中,一等土地被清空,國有銀行就排着隊給工程貸款。
協同開發交通樞紐工程的國有公司上海申虹投資發展有限公司總經理曹龍金說:“這種規模的拆遷安置和土地收購只有中國能做到。這是一個奇蹟。”
中國於20世紀80和90年代已經有過一陣機場建設熱潮,當時事情的進展可沒有現在這麼順利。那些機場往往設計粗劣,只能維持最低限度的運轉,而且往往處於虧損狀態。
現在,大都市因為房地產熱潮而獲得充裕的資金。政府官員到海外進行實地調查、聘請國際顧問、開設合資公司來提高最大幾座機場迅速盈利的幾率。
在上海,機場主管部門協助設立了上海申虹投資發展有限公司來開發新的交通樞紐,提振機場周邊的區域。該計劃包括建設一個新的商業中心區,有由香港開 發商瑞安房地產有限公司開發的寫字樓、五星級酒店和大型綜合商業項目。開發商還聘請了美國建築師本·伍德(Ben Wood),熱鬧的上海新天地商務與娛樂區就是他設計的。
設計2號航站樓時,上海市官員一直是把它當作一個盈利的企業來考慮的,該企業效仿了倫敦、香港和新加坡機場的模式,這些地方的機場同時也是活力四射的購物中心,裡面遍布着免稅商店和餐館。
上海機場(集團)有限公司總工程師劉武軍說:“我們會研究一個機場有哪個區域是能盈利的,有哪個區域通常是無利可圖的。我們把那些趨於盈利的區域盡量往大了建;無利可圖的區域則盡量往小了建。”
結果就是(不那麼有利可圖的)機場周邊道路規模較小,而(更加有利可圖的)酒店、零售店和貨運區域的面積更大。
亞特蘭大的機場是全球最具成本競爭力的機場之一,它有約70%的收益來自購物和停車等非航空領域。劉武軍說,它就是上海的榜樣。
降低建築成本也是盈利公式中的一個因子。專家們說,在中國這部分成本的降低會更容易,因為雄心萬丈的建築計劃在這裡很平常。
例如,上海僱傭了1.3萬餘名建築工人建設交通樞紐項目,並和這裡的許多項目一樣採用了以下方案:它制定了細化到一周七天、每天24小時的建設進度計劃。由於大多數工人就住在工地上,通勤時間達到了最小化。
所以,儘管倫敦希思羅機場(Heathrow Airport)的5號航站樓完工時耗時近六年、耗資達65億美元,與之規模相當的虹橋機場2號航站樓的建造時長卻不到前者的二分之一,耗資則只有前者的 三分之一。2010年初開放時,虹橋機場2號航站樓設立了80個登機手續值機櫃檯,年航班處理能力達到30萬架次。去年,該機場起落的航班達到了23.4 萬架次。
2號航站樓內部有星巴克咖啡(Starbucks)、阿瑪尼(Armani)、傑尼亞(Zegna)、愛馬仕(Hermès)和寶格麗 (Bulgari)等店鋪,是一個招租的免稅購物區和辦公場所。航站樓外,連接地鐵站和航站樓的商場開發進度較慢。但政府稱航站樓是能夠盈利的。
預計今年航站樓大廳每天的客流量逾3000萬人,廣告牌顯得格外有價值。
但上海的機場主管部門卻沒有簽約出租廣告牌,而是在2005年達成了更有利可圖的協議——和法國戶外廣告巨頭德高集團(JCDecaux)成立合資企業,機場方面占多數股權。
德高中國(JCDecaux China)的一名高管稱,公司幫助機場方面規劃2號航站樓的超大戶內和戶外廣告展示。這名發言人說上海的廣告費一年可高達200萬美元,在某些情況下這個費率比美國或歐洲還高。
和美國相比,中國機場還有其他融資優勢,如航空公司需繳納更高的落地費,而乘客需繳納強制性的機場建設費,乘坐一次航班最高需繳納90元人民幣的機場建設費。
在美國,1973年出台的一部法律禁止美國機場向乘客收取費用,但這種情形在1990年發生改變。2000年,機場向乘客收取的費用增加到了每次航班4.5美元,大概相當於中國此費用的一半,儘管美國的飛機票價高於中國。
在美國,有人警告美國機場基礎設施的糟糕情況可能會阻礙該行業的發展,而造成這種狀況的其中一個原因就是美國政府對機場融資方式的限制。
“我們將改變對我們機場的管理方式,如機場怎樣進行融資和怎樣建設工程等,”北美國際機場協會(Airports Council International North America)會長格雷格·普林奇帕托(Greg Principato)說,該協會代表着美國約450個商用機場。
當然,中國的機場將面臨擴張帶來的管理挑戰,特別是如果出現勞動力成本增加和空中交通擁堵的話。一些研究經濟發展的分析人士還擔心,中國的機場項目運力過剩,收益率可能會被中國的高鐵侵蝕。
但上海機場集團總工程師劉武軍開玩笑稱,中國國有機場更看重盈利。“中國和美國的不同之處在於,美國的政府管理着機場非營利的業務,而把營利的業務交給私營部門,”他笑着說,“美國方式更加社會主義,而中國方式更加資本主義。”
John Schwartz自紐約對本文有報道貢獻。
翻譯:張薇、陶夢縈


Airports in China Hew to an Unswerving Flight Path

Eugene Hoshiko/Associated Press
A boarding gate area at Hongqiao Airport’s second terminal in Shanghai, shown in 2010. The city relocated 10,000 residents to enable the construction.
SHANGHAI — For those frustrated with air travel in the United States, arriving at this city’s domestic airport can be a treat.
New arrivals are whisked on electronic walkways through a bright, spacious airport terminal that features elegant lounges, free Wi-Fi, speedy security checks and an efficient baggage handling system.
This is what the best airports now look like in the world’s second-largest economy.
Three years after it opened, Terminal 2 at Hongqiao International Airport in Shanghai stands as a testament to China’s economic ambitions, and to its unique approach to infrastructure development.
With extraordinary government support, Shanghai built a massive airport terminal in 32 months as part of a $9 billion transportation hub that connects the air terminal with the city’s buses, subway platforms and a new high-speed railway network.
“They know how to build things and how to do it efficiently,” said Jeffrey N. Thomas, chief executive of Landrum & Brown, an American firm that helped design the new Shanghai terminal. “That area went from plans on a piece of paper to a complex that has 14 million square feet in less than four years. That’s hard to do.”
At a time when many American airports are falling into disrepair, China is quickening its air travel development, with plans to build nearly 100 more airports by 2015, including some at high altitudes, where special landing gear is required. Many of those airports are expected to lose money, but that hasn’t deterred the government, which views the expansion of infrastructure as vital to economic development.
China’s big-city airports are already colossal. Last year, Beijing Capital International Airport handled 81 million passengers, up from 27 million in 2002.
This year, it could surpass Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport to become the world’s busiest.
In Shanghai, Pudong Airport — which operates 25 miles east of Hongqiao as the city’s international gateway — has so many flights it plans to add a fourth and fifth runway, something few other airports in the world possess.
The quality and speed with which China builds its big city airports is impressive. But whether China holds any lessons for airport development in America, or Europe for that matter, is unclear, analysts say.
China’s building programs are supported by an authoritarian political system that brooks no challenges. When the government decides to build or expand an airport, there are no public hearings or any public protests of note.
And while economists ponder the long-term consequences of that decision-making process, this country’s leaders push ahead with new megaprojects.
“There’s a pro-investment bias here, partly because the country still has so much surplus labor, which makes it a lot cheaper to build,” said Louis Kuijs, an economist at the Royal Bank of Scotland based in Hong Kong. “And this is a country that knows how to build. Look at the Great Wall!”
Terminal 2 at Hongqiao Airport is one of those “this could only happen in China” developments. With Terminal 1 congested, the city announced plans in 2006 for a new transportation hub to cover 10 square miles, a project that when complete is likely to be the world’s largest transit hub with about 1.1 million passengers a day.
To build it, the city cleared 10,000 residents from a huge plot of land west of Hongqiao by building new apartments for them a few miles away. Because the state owns all land in China, and residents have little bargaining power, local governments and developers often benefit from lower development costs.
And in the case of the transportation hub, once the land was cleared, state-run banks lined up to lend money to the project.
“The relocation and acquiring of land this size, only China can do it,” said Cao Longjin, general manager of Shanghai Rainbow Investments, a state-run company that helped develop the hub. “It’s a miracle.”
When China went on an earlier airport-building spree in the 1980s and early 1990s, things didn’t go quite so smoothly. The airports tended to be poorly designed and minimally functional, and usually lost money.
Now, big cities are flush with cash from a real estate boom. Government officials take part in overseas fact-finding missions, hire international consultants and set up joint ventures that improve the chances that the biggest airports will turn a profit.
In Shanghai, the city’s airport authority helped set up Shanghai Rainbow Investments to develop the new transportation hub and revitalize the area around it. The plan includes a new central business district with towers, five-star hotels and a vast mixed-use commercial project created by the Hong Kong developer Shui On Land. The developer hired the American architect Ben Wood, who designed Shanghai’s popular Xintiandi commercial and entertainment district.
City officials also designed Terminal 2 with profit-making ventures in mind, modeled on airports in London, Hong Kong and Singapore, where terminals double as vibrant shopping malls, packed with duty-free shopping and restaurants.
“We looked at what areas of an airport are profitable and which are typically not profitable,” said Liu Wujun, chief technical officer at the Shanghai Airport Authority and one of the main planners behind Terminal 2. “The areas that tend to be profitable we made as large as possible; the areas not so profitable we made as small as possible.”
The result was smaller roadways alongside the airport (not so profitable), and larger hotels, retail outlets and cargo-processing sections (more profitable).
Atlanta’s airport is one of the world’s most cost competitive, with about 70 percent of its revenue from nonaviation areas like shops and parking. That is Shanghai’s model, Mr. Liu said.
Part of the profitability equation involved lowering the cost of construction. And experts say that comes easier in China, where aggressive building schedules are the norm.
Shanghai, for instance, hired more than 13,000 construction workers to develop the transportation hub and did what many projects here do: it instituted a 24/7 construction schedule. Commuting time was minimal since most of the workers lived on site.
So while Heathrow Airport Terminal 5 in London took nearly six years to build and cost $6.5 billion, Hongqiao’s Terminal 2, roughly the same size, was built in less than half the time for a third of the cost. When it opened in early 2010, Terminal 2 had 80 check-in counters and capacity to handle 300,000 flights a year. Last year, the airport handled 234,000 flights.
Inside, Terminal 2 was also fitted with Starbucks coffee, Armani, Zegna, Hermès and Bulgari stores, a duty-free shopping area and office space for lease. Outside the terminal, a shopping mall that connects the railway station with the airport terminal has been slow to develop. But the government says the terminal is profitable.
With more than 30 million passengers expected to pass through its halls this year, billboard advertising comes at a premium.
But rather than sign a deal to lease out the billboards, the city’s airport authority brokered a potentially more lucrative deal in 2005 by forming a joint venture with JCDecaux, the French outdoor advertising giant, one that gives the airport a majority stake.
An executive at JCDecaux China says the company helped the airport authority plan Terminal 2 with oversize indoor and outdoor advertising displays in mind. Rates in Shanghai, the spokesman said, can be as high as $2 million a year, in some cases higher than rates in the United States or Europe.
Chinese airports have other financing advantages over the United States, like higher landing fees for airlines and mandatory airport construction fees paid by passengers, as much as $13 a flight.
A 1973 law prohibiting airports in the United States from charging passenger fees was changed in 1990. In 2000, the fee was raised to $4.50 a flight, about half as much as China’s fee, though airfares are higher in the United States.
In the United States, there are warnings that the poor state of infrastructure at American airports is likely to hold back the industry, and that one of the impediments is the way government restricts financing options.
“We’re going to have to change the way our airports are regulated in terms of how they finance things and how they put projects in place,” said Greg Principato, president of the Airports Council International North America, which represents the nation’s roughly 450 commercial airports.
Of course, with expansion China’s airports will face tough management challenges, particularly if labor costs rise and air traffic slows. There are also concerns among some analysts who study economic development that China’s airport program is excessive and that the country’s high-speed rail is likely to erode the profitability of airports.
But Mr. Liu, the chief technical officer at Shanghai’s airport authority, jokes about how much more profit-oriented state-owned operators are in China. “The difference between here and the U.S. is that in the U.S., the government manages the nonprofit parts of an airport and gives the profitable parts to the private sector,” he said, laughing. “The U.S. way is more socialist and the Chinese more capitalist.”
John Schwartz contributed reporting from New York.